Hard hardwood, creolization, deviltree, and pissed-off voyageurs
Ah, some deviltree! Just in time for Halloweeeen! 🙂
Literally ‘hard-hard wood’. Finding this in C. Snow’s field notes with the meaning ‘oak’, I checked his sometimes interesting CJ phonetics against the Grand Ronde dictionary.
Surprising to me, it’s not there.
The reason it’s surprising, and the reason it’s cool to find outside of Shawash-Ili’i, is the full-root reduplication.
My perception is that that RDUP is unique to creolized Jargon. Which we typically identify with Grand Ronde.
But there are multiple testimonies as early as about 1820, to the effect that kids were growing up talking Jargon (i.e. making it a mother-tongue, i.e. creolizing it) on the lower Columbia River.
Kull-kull stick for ‘oak’ is also in Swan 1857, from Shoalwater Bay! You know: way down by the mouth of the Columbia.
*(As opposed to onomatopoeic reduplications, e.g. the similar-sounding koko ‘knock’ which fits a pattern of Chinookan forms, which get inherited in all flavors of Jargon…
…Going on a harmless George Carlin tangent, did you ever notice how weird koko stick [from Lionnet 1853] sounds for ‘woodpecker’? Because prior to the CTGR revitalization, we had extremely few compounds of Verb+Noun Object like this. It’s clearly a calque on French ‘pic-bois’.
On the other hand, Lionnet’s kooo [sic] stick for ‘bois-diable’ = ‘vine maple’, I can see this being a typo for a well-formed Adjective+Noun compound *koco stick, ‘the knocking tree’. Because like Alan Hartley pointed out to Henry Zenk on the CHINOOK listserv once, vine maples had the habit of knocking pissed-off voyageur trailblazers in the face.)