How Father St. Onge’s “Chinuk Pipa” texts link early-creolized with Northern Jargon (Part 2B of 2)

I’ve been sick for several days, so I’ll just drop this here.

Kopa ixt mitxwit stik nsaika chako
From one standing tree we got 

klaxawiam, pi wixt kopa ixt mitxwit stik
pitiful, and also from another standing tree(,) 

lakrwa, nsaika chako tlap kopa masachi.
the cross, we get found from bad things. 

Kopa ixt kluchmin Iv nsaika chako
From one woman, Eve, we got 

klaxawiam, pi kopa ixt kluchmin Sint Mari
pitiful, and from another woman, Saint Mary, 

nsaika komtaks tlus tomtom wixt.
we know how to be happy again. 


< The punishment of sin and the promise

of a Redeemer. >

ST chako saliks kopa Adam pi Iv.
God got mad at Adam and Eve. 

< 13. > Tlip* son, ST iaka chako kopa Paradais
13.        When the sun had sunk, God came to Paradise
     {This word of southern CW probably traces back to Salish, which is why northern-CW speaking Salish people in BC might be able to puzzle out a meaning for it, but it’s not known in northern CW}

pi iaka mamuk chako Adam kopa iaka. Iaka wawa
and he had Adam come to him. He said 

kopa Adam: “Pus ikta maika kwash, pi maika
to Adam: “What could it be(,) that you’re afraid, and you’re 

mamuk ipsut?” “Naika kwash, wawa Adam,
hiding?” “I’m afraid,(“) said Adam, 

kiwa ukuk kluchman* klaksta maika paxlach kopa
(“)because that woman which you gave to 

naika, iaka makmak lipom, pi naika piltin pi naika
me, she ate the apple, and I’m crazy and I 

wixt makmak [Ø].” ST iaka wawa kopa
also ate it.” God said to 

Iv: “Pus ikta maika makmak okok lipom?”
Eve: “What could it be(,) that you ate that apple?”

“Olok, wawa Iv, iaka tliminxwit kopa naika,
“It was a snake,(“) said Eve, “it lied to me,

pi naika makmak [Ø].”
and I ate it.”

< 14. > Alta ST iaka mash masachi wawa
14.        Then God threw bad words 

kopa olok. Iaka wawa kopa iaka: “Maika
at the snake. He said to him: “You’ll 

kwanisim alki klatwa kopa ilihi kopa maika kwatin
always go on the ground on your belly

pi maika kwanisim alki makmak pulali ilixi,
and you’ll always eat dust, 

pi msaika kwanisim alki masachi tomtom,
and you folks will always have bad hearts (towards each other), 

kluchmin pi maika; pi kopa tolo, kluchmin
the woman and you; and to top it all off, the woman
{kopa tolo is unknown in northern CW, as well as apparently being limited to older southern CW; its literal meaning is something like ‘for the win’ but it’s ungrammatical in the north}

iaka mamuk kakshit maika latit.
will smash your head. 

< 15. > ST iaka wawa kopa kluchmin: “Maika
15.        God said to the woman: “You’ll 

alki mamuk maika tanas kopa aias sik, pi maika
have your babies in great pain, and you’ll 

wixt alki tlus nanich maika man iaka wawa.”
also pay good attention to your man’s words.” 

Kopa man iaka wawa: “Naika mash masachi wawa
To the man he said: “I’m throwing bad words 

kopa ilixi, pi iaka kopit mamuk chako ikta makmak
at the earth(“), and he stopped providing any kind of food 

kopa ilo mamuk; kopit kipwit stik iaka alki
for no work; only thorn bushes would he be 

mamuk chako: pi spos maika skukom mamuk pi
providing: (“)and if you work hard and 

mash ayu chok < “sweat”>, alta chi ilihi
sweat a lot of sweat, then the earth will start to 

iaka paxlach makmak kopa maika. Spos kansix
give food to you. However 

lili maika mitlait kopa ilihi, kakwa lili
long you live on the earth, that’s how long 

maika alki skukom mamuk, pi alta maika
you’ll work hard, and then you’ll 

klatwa kilapai kopa ilixi, kiwa maika chako
go back to the earth, because you came 

kopa tlimin ilixi, pi tlimin ilihi alki maika
from mud, and mud is what you’ll 

turn into.(“)

< 16. > Alta ST iaka iskom skin, iaka
16.        Then God picked up a skin, he 

mamuk [Ø] kakwa kot, pi iaka paxlach [Ø] kopa
made it like a coat, and he gave it to 

Adam pi Iv. Iaka mash klaska klaxani kopa
Adam and Eve. He tossed them out to 

kaltash ilixi, pi iaka mamuk mitlait ixt
a no-good place, and he placed a certain 

lisash kopa Paradais iaka lapot; kopa
angel at Paradise’s door; in 

iaka lima mitlait ixt paia yutlkat optsax
his hand was a certain burning yutlkat optsax
     {both of these Chinookan-sourced words (‘long knife’) are unknown in the north}

pi iaka mamuk wach pus Adam pi Iv wik kansix
and he stood watch so Adam and Even wouldn’t ever 

chako kilapai kopa tlus ilixi.
come back to the good place.

Kopa chi ilihi < CHAPTER V: > Ilip ShK chako
In the new world                       Before Jesus came here

< 128 > sno < Cain and Abel. > < 3872 sno >
128 years                                    3872 years

< 17. > Ayu tanas chako kopa Adam pi Iv;
17.        Lots of kids got born to Adam and Eve; 

kopa klaska mitlait Kain pi Abil iaka aw,
in their house there was Cain and Abel his brother, 

Inglish wawa Kin pi Ibil.
in English, “Cain and Abel”. 

Kin iaka mamuk tsax ilixi < “plow”>, pi
Cain tore the ground, and
{it’s just possible that BC Interior Salish speakers could guess a roughly appropriate meaning for this southern-only word}

iaka masachi; Ibil iaka tlus nanich lamuto
he was mean; Abel took care of sheep 

pi iaka drit pi tlus man. Kanamokst klaska
and he was right and a good man. Together they 

mamuk paia styuil itluil kopa ST. Ibil
burned prayer meat for God. Abel 

iaka mamuk paia kopa ST ixt tanas lamuto
burned for God one lamb 

pi Kin, lipom, olali, pi ikta makmak klaksta
and Cain, apples, berries, and kinds of food which 

chako kopa ilixi, iaka pahlach Ø kopa ST.
come from the ground, he gave them to God. 

ST iaka nanich kikuli kopa klaska tomtom
God looked down in their hearts 

pi kakwa iaka tlus nanich kopa Ibil iaka styuil=
and that’s how he paid close attention to Abel’s prayer 

itluil klaksta smok klatwa saxali drit kopa
meat whose smoke went up right to 

ST: pi iaka ipsut iaka siahust kopa Kin
God: and he hid his eyes from Cain’s 

iaka styuil paxlach klaksta smok klatwa kopa
prayer gift whose smoke went to 

the ground. 

<18.> Spos Kin iaka nanich ukuk, iaka tomtom
18.      When Cain saw this, his heart 

chako patl saliks pi sik latit kopa iaka aw.
got full of anger and headache at his brother.
{sik latit (‘sick/hurting head’) is only ‘headache’ in the north, not the ‘resentment’ that St. Onge is going for}

Iaka siahust chako masachi, pi ST iaka
His face got mean, and God 

tlus wawa kopa iaka pus iaka kopit mitlait kakwa
advised him to stop having such a 

tomtom. Iaka wawa kopa iaka, spos iaka
heart. He said to him, if he 

tlus alki iaka iskom pi [SIC] kakwa Ibil: Kin
was good he would receive (?) like Abel: Cain 

iaka kal latit, pi wik iaka tiki iskom ukuk
was hard-headed, and he didn’t want to accept that
     {kal latit / q’ə́l-latét is common in the south, not so in the north}

tlus wawa; pi iaka wik chako kwan tomtom,
good advice; and he didn’t get calmed down.
{kwan is southern-only, and I think it would be hard or impossible for BC Salish people to guess a meaning for it, except from the context here}

“kwan, < mild >.”

< 19. > Iaka mamuk chako iaka saliks ilip aias
19.        He brought his anger bigger
{In older southern dialect, causatives could be formed with mamuk-chako- (‘make-become-‘), whereas now (and in the north) we just use mamuk-, so here St Onge would seem to be saying ‘made it come’ instead of ‘made it’. The placement of iaka/yaka here is unfortunate, I think, too, because in a causative expression we expect the object to come last: mamuk chako ilip aias iaka saliks.}

pi ixt son iaka masachi tomtom tolo
and one day his mean heart won out 

kopa iaka. Iaka wawa kopa iaka aw pus klaska
over him. He said to his brother that they should 

kanamokst klatwa kopa tipso ilixi. Spos klaska
go to the farm together. When they 

ko kopa tipso ilihi, iaka iskom aias stik
arrived at the farm, he took up a big stick 

pi iaka mamuk mimlust Ibil. Spos ilixi iaka
and he killed Abel. While the ground
     {I’ve said it many times: iaka/yaka prototypically refers to animates…}

chi makmak Ibil iaka pilpil, alta ST iaka
was just eating up Abel’s blood, that’s when God 

krai kopa Kin: “Kin? Kax na maika aw?”
cried to Cain: “Cain? Where’s your brother?”
{krai is known in northern CW, but only as ‘weep’, not the southern sense of ‘yell’. And na, the yes/no question marker, is unknown in the north.}

Kin iaka kilapai wawa kopa ST: “Wik naika
Cain answered God: “I don’t 

komtaks: naika na naika aw iaka tlus nanich man?”
know: am I my brother’s watchman?”
     {The usual expression for ‘watchman’ in the north is wach man.}

<20.> Pi ST klaksta komtaks kanawi ikta
20.      And the God which knows everything 

iaka wawa kopa Kin: “Ibil iaka pilpil iaka
said to Cain: “Abel’s blood 

skukom krai kopa naika pus naika mamuk pi [SIC] ukuk
is crying hard to me(,) for me to make up for (?) this 

masachi kopa maika. Kiwa maika wik kwash
bad thing to you. Because you had no fear 

pi maika mamuk ukuk aias masachi. Maika alki
and you did this very bad thing. You’ll 

kwanisim kaltash kuli kax kax kopa ilixi. Spos
always wander all over the earth.(“) When 

Kin iaka komtaks kopa kolan ukuk wawa, kakwa pus
Cain knew these words by ear, it’s like
{komtaks kopa kolan/kə́mtəks kʰapa q’wəlán (know by ear) is older southern CW for ‘hear’; in the north we just have kolan/q’wəlán}

iaka tomtom mimlust, pi iaka krai: “Naika
his heart died, and he cried: “My 

masachi iaka drit aias, pi wik kansix
bad thing is really a big one, and it’ll never 

iaka chako stox* “mash < forgiven >.”
get tossed away(?).”
{stox/stúx ‘untied’ is unknown in the north}

Alta ST iaka mamuk mitlait ixt tsim kopa
Then god put a certain mark on 

iaka, pi iaka klatwa pi iaka chako kaltash
him, and he went and he turned into a no-good  

kuli kax kax man kopa ukuk ilixi.
wandering man on this earth. 

< 21. > Ukuk mimlust Ibil iaka mamuk nanich ShK
21.        That dead Abel shows God 

kopa nsaika, pi Kin iaka kakwa Shudas,
to us, and Cain is like Judas, 

pi Chyu tilikom klaksta mamuk mimlust
and the Jew people which killed 

nsaika taii kopa lakrwa.
our chief on the cross. 

Kopa chi ilihi < CHAPTER VI. > Ilip ShK chako
In the new world                Before Jesus came here

< 1656 > sno < The Deluge > < 2344 > sno
1,656 years                             2,344 years

Aias chok chako.
A big water comes along.

< 22. > Adam iaka tanas pi klaska tanas
22.        Adam’s kids and their kids 

klaska chako kakwa pus tlkop kopa sitkom:
came to be as if “tlkop” in half:
{tlkop/ɬq’úp ‘cut’ is not used in the north, where we find kə́t}

“tlkop < cut >” klaska tlus pi klaska masachi
cut(;) they were good and they were mean(.)

pus mamuk tlus Adam iaka tomtom kiwa Ibil
To make Adam feel better because of Abel’s 

iaka mimlust, ST iaka paxlach iaka ixt tanas
dying, God gave him a kid 

klaksta nim Sit. Sit iaka tilikom klaska
whose name was Seth. Seth’s relatives 

chako komtaks < “were known” > kakwa ST
learned like God’s 

iaka tanas, pi Kin iaka tilikom klaska chako
kids, and Cain’s relatives 

komtaks kakwa aias masachi tilikom.
learned like really mean people. 

< 23. > Tanas kopa tanas < “Little by little” >,
23.         Little by little, 

kanawi tilikom chako masachi. Kopit Noi
everyone got mean. Only Noah 

iaka mitlait drit man. ST iaka wawa kopa
was left (as a) real man. God said to 

Noi: “Tlus maika mamuk ixt aias ship kakwa
Noah: “You should build a certain kind of big ship like 

xaws, kiwa kopit < 100 > kol ilixi naika tiki
a house, because after 100 winters I intend 

mamuk ilo ukuk masachi tilikom pi kanawi
to destroy these mean people and every- 

ikta klaksta mitlait win kopa ukuk ilixi.” Ukuk
thing which has breath on this earth.” That 

ship xaws klaksta nim ark iaka < 150 > stik
ship-house whose name was “Ark” was 150 yards
{This older southern CW usage of stik to mean ‘a yard (3 feet)’ isn’t found in the north, but I’m guessing northern readers would infer its approximate meaning…however, they might take it as ‘150 trees’ in size!}

yutlkat: < 25 > stik pilti, pi < 15 > stik
yutlkat: 25 yards pilti, and 15 yards
     {Two more southern words not known in the north, meaning ‘long’ and ‘thick’. Northern texts show us lon & waid for these concepts.}

saxali. Saxali kopa iaka mitlait ixt
high. On top of it there was a kind of 

windo, pi tanas kikuli mitlait ixt lapot.
window, and a bit lower there was a kind of door. 

< 24. > Ixt < 100 > [SIC] kol ilixi, pi Noi iaka mamuk
24.        It was one 100 winters, and Noah 

kopit ukuk aias ship xaws. Iaka kwanisim
finished up that big ship-house. He kept 

wawa kopa tilikom: “Tlus msaika mamuk
saying to people: “You folks should do 

laplitas* pus msaika masachi, kiwa spos
penance if you’re mean, because if 

msaika wik tlus nanich kopa ukuk naika wawa kopa
you don’t pay good attention to what I’m saying to 

msaika, msaika nawitka alki chako aias
you, you’ll definitely get real 

klaxawiam. Pi wik klaska iskom iaka wawa.
pitiful.(“) But they didn’t accept his words. 

Klaska mamuk hixi, klaska mamuk dans,
They played around, they had dances, 

klaska mamuk lapola < “feasted” > pi wik
they made lapola, and they didn’t
{The ironies of Chinuk Wawa history. A language that really took shape in Métis households around Fort Vancouver, and a word of distinctily Métis heritage — which became unknown in the northern dialect.}

klaska kopit mamuk masachi. Alta ST
stop doing bad things. Then God 

iaka wawa kopa Noi pus iaka klatwa kopa ark.
told Noah to go onboard the Ark. 

Iaka wixt mamuk klatwa kopa ship xaws
He also sent onto the ship-house 

iaka kluchmin, iaka tlun tanas man, pi klaska
his wife, his three sons, and their 

kluchmin. Iaka wixt iskom mokst kopa
women. He also collected two from 

kanawi xlwima kotin < “animals”, >
every different kotin,
     {Totally unknown in the northern dialect.}

pi iaka mamuk klatwa klaska kopa ark, pi
and he sent them onto the Ark, and 

ayu makmak pus kanawi klaska.
lots of food so they would be everything. 

< 25. > Iaka mitlait sinmokst son kopa
25.        He stayed seven days on 

ark pi chi iaka chako aias ayu snas
the Ark until he got to be a huge rain(;)  

kakwa spos saxali iaka chako kakshit. Alta
it was as if the sky had got broken. Now 

kanawi tilikom klaska chi komtaks Noi
everyone realized Noah 

iaka wik kaltash wawa kopa klaska, pi
hadn’t been BS’ing them, and 

klaska chako kakwa ilo tomtom tilikom.
they got to be like mindless idiots. 


qʰata mayka təmtəm?
What do you think?