1904: Wreck of the Clallam (Part 3 of 3)

clallam path map

Clallam path map (image credit: Historylink)

Chinook Jargon turns out to be very good at describing disasters and scaring listeners.

Read and learn.

Wreck of the Clallam part 3 Chinuk Wawa

Wreck of the Clallam part 3b Chinuk Wawa

(tilikom pus mamuk isik, pus lolo klaska…
tílikam pus mamuk-ísik, pus lólo łáska…
people in.order.to make-paddle, in.order.to carry them…
‘men to row, to take them…’)

…klaska [SIC] kopa ilihi, klunas tlun mail saia. 
…łaska kʰupa ílihi, t’łúnas łún máyl sayá.
…them to land, maybe three mile far.
‘…them to land, about three miles away.’ 

     Chi ukuk tlun bot mash stimbot, pi 
     chxí úkuk łún bót másh stím-bót, pi 
just.then those three boat leave steam-boat, and 

     ‘Just when those three boats had left the steamboat,’ 

klaska kapsais, pi kanawi ukuk kluchmin pi 
łáska kápsays* [1], pi kánawi úkuk łúchmən pi 
they capsize, and all those woman and 

‘they capsized, and all of those women and’ 

tanas klaska mimlus kopa chok. 
ténas łaska míməlus kʰupa chə́qw [2]. 
child they die in water.
‘children drowned.’

     Wiht ukuk aias stimbot kwanisim klatwa
     wéx̣t úkuk (h)áyás(h) stím-bót kwánsəm łátwa 

     more that big steamboat always go
‘Still that big steamboat kept going’

ilip kikuli kopa chok: wik saia sitkom 
íləp-kíkwəli [3] kʰupa chə́qw: wík-sayá sítkum- 
more below in water: not far half-
‘under water: near mid-‘

pulakli mokst tanas stimbot chako mamuk hilp 
pulakʰli mákwst ténas stím-bót cháko mamuk-hélp 
night two little steamboat come make-help
‘night two small steamboats (tugboats) came to give help’ 

kopa iaka: klaska tiki pul iaka kopa ilihi, pi 
kʰupa yáka: łáska tíki pʰúl [4] yaka kʰupa ílihi, pi 
to it: they want pull it to land, but 

‘to it: they meant to pull it to land, but’ 

ilihi saia: wik kata klaska tolo: ukuk 
ílihi sayá: wík-qʰáta łáska túluʔ [5]: ukuk 
land far: not how they win: those
‘land was far off: they had no chance of success: those’

mokst hloima stimbot alta ayu mamuk pus hilp ukuk 
mákwst x̣lúyma stím-bot álta (h)ayu-mámuk pus hélp [6] úkuk 
two other steamboat now much-work to help those
‘two other steamboats (tugboats) were now trying to help those’

tilikom mitlait kopa ukuk klahawiam stimbot. 
tílikam míłayt kʰupa úkuk łax̣áwyam stim-bót. 
people be.located on that poor steamboat.
‘people who were on the unfortunate steamboat.’

Klaska tlap < 44 > tilikom, pi ukuk < 55 > 
łáska t’łáp fórti-fór tílikam, pi úkuk fífti-fáyv
they get forty-four people, but those fifty-five
‘They got forty-four people, but those fifty-five’

hloima klaska mimlus kopa chok. 
x̣lúyma łaska míməlus kʰupa chə́qw. 
other they die in water.
‘others were drowned.’

     Iaka ukuk naika wawa kopa msaika: 
     yáka úkuk náyka wáwa kʰupa msáyka: 
it this I say to you.folks:
‘It’s this that I say to you folks:’

tlus nanich wik msaika tsipi kopa ikta.
(t)łús(h)-nánich wík msáyka t’sípi kʰupa íkta. [7
well-watch not you.folks be.wrong in anything.
‘Take care not to make mistakes about anything.’

Kopa kah son wik msaika komtaks, iawa
kʰupa qʰá(x̣)-sán [8] wík msáyka kə́mtəks, yawá [9]
on where-day not you.folks know, there 

‘Some day you don’t know(,) you don’t know when, that’s when’

msaika mimlus, iawa msaika sili klatwa kopa 
msáyka míməlus, yawá msáyka síli [10] łátwa kʰupa
you.folks die, there you.folks’s soul go to 

‘you’ll die, (and) then your souls will go to’

ST pus iaka mamuk kort haws msaika[.]
sáx̣ali-táyí pus yáka mamuk-kórt-háws msáyka.
above-chief in.order.that he make-court-house you.folks.

‘God for him to judge you.’


kápsays* [1] — with an asterisk showing that I’m inferring its pronunciation — is a new word of Chinuk Wawa for us. It’s believable that ‘capsize(d)’ would come in from local spoken English to Kamloops-area Jargon; I find many hundreds of occurrences of it in BC newspapers, for example, in the 20-year span centring on 1904.

míməlus kʰupa chə́qw [2], literally ‘die in water’, is sadly a common expression in BC Jargon for ‘drown’. 

wéx̣t úkuk (h)áyás(h) stím-bót kwánsəm łátwa íləp-kíkwəli [3]: you can see that both wə́x̣t and íləp-are shown with literal meanings of ‘more’. The difference between them is important, though. The ‘more’ idea in wə́x̣t is essentially ‘still; again; repeatedly’. For íləp-, it’s more like ‘a greater degree; comparatively’. 

The word pʰúl [4] is a more recent loan from spoken English into BC Jargon, tending to replace the older, sailor-inspired hál (from ‘haul‘ as in ‘haul the lanyards’).  

túluʔ [5] has been a surprisingly strong presence in BC, not just in Chinook Jargon, but even in tribal languages such as Kwak’wala; the late Freda Shaughnessy surprised me when I asked how to say ‘win’ by saying dulu! 

hélp [6]: notice how this word is used as a simple old transitive, with a direct object, here. A few lines above, it was used with an indirect object (mamuk hilp kopa iaka ‘give help to it’). Both versions are very common. 

wík msáyka t’sípi kʰupa íkta [7— ‘don’t be wrong in anything’, i.e. don’t sin — I’m highlighting this expression as a reminder to newer speakers of Chinuk Wawa that the equivalent of saying ‘not anything’ is literally ‘not (a) thing’. If you’re a speaker of a language that uses “double negation” to say such things (like Spanish no hagas nada, Russian nichevó ne délaj), this is advice to you, too: the Jargon only needs one negative per clause.  

The usual way to express ‘when’ in Kamloops Chinook Jargon is kʰupa qʰá(x̣)-sán (literally ‘on where-day’) [8] or just qʰá(x̣)-sán [8] (‘where-day’). This is weird, by the standards of other Jargon dialects. But I guess you ought to learn it, because this BC variety of CJ is the enormous majority of preserved Jargon!!

Another weird use of location words: a really typical way of talking in BC Chinuk Wawa is to make yawá [9(literally ‘there’) also express ‘(and) then’, as we see in more than one example here. Again, this is different from other dialects. Compare Grand Ronde in Oregon, where yawá only means ‘there’, although interestingly, they too have drafted a poor innocent location word to have a new meaning — GR’s kʰapá (an apparent development from kʰapa ‘at, in, on, etc.’) = ‘there’. A result of all these mutations is that GR’s yawá has become less frequent in speech, while BC CW’s yawá has become more frequent!

síli ‘soul’ [10] is one of the several nice loans from Coast Salish that we see in Kamloops CW for spiritual concepts. It’s the same word-stem that occurs, for example, in the Upriver Halq’eméylem expression Stó:lõ Shxwelí Wíyothò ‘Stolo Spirit Forever’. 

Wreck of the Clallam part 3 English

Wreck of the Clallam part 3b English

from Kamloops Wawa #208 (March 1904), pages 14-17

One last note for those inclined to delve much more deeply into the linguistics of the “Clallam” article: as I recall, Zvjezdana Vrzić’s 1999 dissertation used this text as an example of Kamloops Jargon’s grammar. FYI: her analysis differs in many ways from what I reached in my dissertation based on Aboriginal-written texts.

kata maika tomtom?
What do you think?