LINGUISTIC ARCHAEOLOGY: TREATY LANGUAGE (POINT NO POINT), PART 6

money

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Let’s talk money. In a “trade language”, that should be really easy, right? Read on.

(Back to: Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4; Part 5)

ARTICLE 5.
úkuk qwínəm íkta ɬáska wáwa
this five thing they talk

‘The fifth thing that was discussed.’

In consideration of the above cession the United States agree to pay to the said
pus pʰéy úkuk s(h)áwásh-tílixam kʰapa kʰánawi úkuk ílihi ɬáska pá(t)lach kʰapa bástən
in.order.to pay these Indian-people for all this land they give to American
‘To pay these Indian people for all of the land they are giving to the American’

háyás(h)-papá, yáka dlét ɬúsh-wáwa pus pá(t)lach ɬáska
great-father, he truly good-say to give them
‘great father, he truly promises to give them’

tribes and bands the sum of sixty thousand dollars, in the following manner,
táx̣am-táɬlam táwsən dála; yáka pá(t)lach Ø kákwa:
six-ten thousand dollar; he give it thus:
‘sixty thousand dollars; he will give it in this way:’

that is to say: during the first year after the ratification hereof, six thousand
qʰánchi(x̣) háyás(h)-papá yáka wáwa ɬúsh úkuk pípa, kʰapa úkuk íxt kʰúl kʰimt’á, yáka
whenever great-father he say good this paper, in that one winter afterward, he
‘when the great father says this paper is good, in the year following, he’

pá(t)lach táx̣am-táwsən
give six-thousand
‘will give six thousand’

dollars; for the next two years, five thousand dollars each year;
dála; pi álta mákwst kʰul cháku, yáka pá(t)lach qwínəm-táwsən dála kʰánawi kʰúl;
dollar; and then two winter come, he give five-thousand dollar every winter;
‘dollars; and then the two following years, he will give five thousand dollars each year;’

for the next
pi álta
and then
‘and then’

three years, four thousand dollars each year; for the next four years,
ɬún kʰúl cháku, yáka pá(t)lach lákit-táwsən dála kʰánawi kʰúl; pi álta lákit kʰúl
three winter come, he give four-thousand dolalr every winter; and then four year
‘the following three years, he will give four thousand dollars each year; and then the following four years,’

three
cháku, yáka pá(t)lach ɬún-
come, he give three-
‘he will give three’

thousand dollars each year; for the next five years, two thousand
táwsən dála kʰánawi kʰúl; pi álta qwínəm kʰúl cháku, yáka pá(t)lach mákwst-táwsən
thousand dollar every winter; and then five year come, he give two-thousand
‘thousand dollars each year; and then the five years following, he will give two thousand’

four hundred
pi lákit-tak’umunaq
and four-hundred
‘four hundred’

dollars each year; and for the next five years, one thousand six hundred dollars
dála kʰánawi kʰúl; pi álta qwínəm kʰúl̓ cháku, yáka pá(t)lach íxt-táwsən pi táx̣am-
dollar every winter; and then five winter come, he give one-thousand and six-
‘dollars each year; and then the five years following, he will give a thousand six’

tak’umunaq dála
hundred dollar
‘hundred dollars’

each year. All which said sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit
kʰánawi kʰúl. kʰánawi úkuk chíkʰəmin, bástən háyás(h)-papá yáka másh úkuk kákwa
every winter. all this money, American great-father he send this as
‘each year. All of this money, the American great father will send as’

yáka tə́mtəm ɬúsh pus ɬúsh-nánich
he think good in.order.to good-watch
‘he thinks is good to take care of’

of the said Indians under the direction of the President of the United States,
úkuk s(h)áwásh-tílixam,
these Indian-people,
‘these Indian people,’

who may from time to time determine at his discretion upon what beneficial
pi ɬúsh pus t’ɬúnas-qʰánchi(x̣) yáka mamuk-tə́mtəm qʰáta mámuk pi íkta mákuk
and good if perhaps-when he make-thought how do and what buy
‘and he should sometimes think about how and what to do and buy’

objects to expend the same. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or
kʰapa úkuk chíkʰəmin. pi áɬqi bástən tənəs-táyí kʰapa úkuk s(h)áwásh-tilixam, pi
with this money, and later American little-chief for these Indian-people, and
‘with this money. And later on, the American supervisor for these Indian people, and’

other proper officer, shall each year inform the President
x̣lúyma(n) bástən tənəs-táyí, kʰánawi kʰúl yáka mamuk-kə́mtəks bástən háyás(h)-papá
other  American little-chief, every winter he make-know American great-father
‘other American supervisors, every year they will let the American great-father know’

of the wishes of said
qʰáta ɬáska tíki mámuk kʰapa úkuk chíkʰəmin,
how they want do with this money,
‘how they want to do things with this money,’

Indians in respect thereto.
úkuk s(h)áwásh-tílixam.
these Indian-people.
‘these Indian people.’

And there you have still more of a sense of how divergent are the ways of talking about the same subjects at a treaty council, depending on whether you’re talking a Native or a White language.

Aside from the Article’s vagueness with respect to what all this money was going to be spent on, and who precisely would benefit fromit, for the moment I’m just going to point out to you that the concept of a ‘thousand’, a ‘hundred’, and even multiple ‘tens’ was mighty new, judging by the evidence of the tribal languages as found in our existing dictionaries. Also new, of course, was the concept of abstract units of worth — ‘dollars’. I infer that my comprehension of the figures involved above would be vague if I were coming from that linguistic background.

Stay tuned for the rest of the treaty…

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