About the Shores of Puget Sound, 1871

[Edited immediately after publishing 🙂 to note — I’ve just realized that word sak-talm ‘paddle’ in Scammon’s article is another good mystery. More soon! DDR]

Scammon gray whale

Scammon’s drawing of a gray whale (image credit: Wikipedia)

Here’s a leisurely cruise guided by a knowledgeable pilot.


Captain Charles Melville Scammon (image credit: Wikipedia)

Our reading selection is “About the Shores of Puget Sound” by Capt. C[harles] M[elville] Scammon, CSRM (1825-1911). Overland Monthly volume 7, number 3 (September 1871), pages 277-286.

Scammon was a whaler who turned that practical knowledge into a career as a naturalist, writing the authoritative guidebook to “The Marine Mammals of the North-Western Coast of North America“. At the time of today’s article, he had followed other mid- to late-career men of his temperament into the US Revenue Service — now the Coast Guard — in the the Pacific Northwest.

Because Scammon’s article is longish, and contains only moderate amounts of Chinuk Wawa, I’m reproducing all of its pages as images, but not exerting the considerable effort to restore punctuation & correct spellings following Google Books’ text-processing of it. There, I’ll just highlight the relevant parts.

The only item needing any comment is the missing letters as we transition from page 282 to page 283; can you hazard a guess about what Chinook Jargon word(s) are cut off there?

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IT was a June morning when we were off the Strait of Juan de Fuca enveloped in one of those heavy fogs that prevail during the summer months hiding everything from view between ship and shore The wind had lulled during the night and the morning brought no breeze except now and then a breath from the land wafting with it the dismal rumbling of the waves dashing among the caverns of Cape Classet Once we heard the splash of paddles and the whoop of Indians as they were passing seaward to their fishing grounds At length the fog began to break First we saw a few tree tops then the deep green forest next a bold headland blended with the lofty sails of several vessels as they peered above the cloud and soon Tatoosh Island with its guiding light house broke through the mist when in an instant almost the vapor disappeared The wind came fresh from the west and our bark flew before it under all sail We soon passed De Fuca’s Pillar and on our left the more distant land of Vancouver Island showed its rounding hills bordering the northern side of the inland waters and its more broken coast line stretched far to the westward Lightly we bounded on our course over a rough sea caused by the adverse tide and as the sun was hiding its blazing rays behind the mountain summits we were up with Kiddy Cubbit a small summer village of the Makah tribe of Indians which is half hidden under the high steeps of the south shore four miles from Tatoosh They are a hardy band inhabiting a wild broken peninsula circumscribed by the river Wy atch the waters of the Strait and the Pacific At the proper seasons they drift in their canoes seaward to fish for halibut and pursue the herds of seals and whales from which they obtain their main supply of food The habits of these natives are filthy in the extreme Their winter lodges are along the shores of Neé-ah Bay which is a league farther up the strait It is a snug haven where ships find shelter behind a pretty island called Wa dah The showy white buildings of the Indian Reservation join the aboriginal village which is comprised of low and old structures covering a large ground space with nothing in their exterior apppearance in the least inviting On a near approach one can see and smell the stifling smoke escaping from every cranny full of noisome fumes yet until you enter these human abodes no real conception can be formed of the filthy life of the occupants Decaying garbage is seen on all sides old Indians of both sexes hideous with dirt and disease squalid children together with the adults hovering around smoldering fires eating half cooked or halfputrid food or gorging themselves on shell fish in their natural state as gathered

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ered from the mud flats by the kloochmen (women). This is the general condition of habitations and inhabitants yet among the filthy group may be seen well clad men women and children the latter usually dressed in flashy colors and comparatively clean so much so that one can hardly imagine how they tolerate the obnoxious habits and mode of life of their tribe And the same Indian character will be found in these personal exceptions although disguised by the garb of civilization and in all there is some change exhibited in their relish for ship bread or that made by themselves of like material instead of the wild roots and plants and the cultivated potato instead of the crude wap- patoo (a bulbous edible root). The Makah men esteem themselves far superior to those of the tribes of the interior who follow the tame life of fishing in the shaded estuaries and babbling brooklets or shooting game within the coverts of the forest for say they we go far out on the ocean to capture the huge monsters of the deep in our great canoes while the salmon eaters catch their fish with the kloochmen and what is more they dare not fight us On a point east of Wa dah Island named by the natives Bahada which forms the inner headland of the bay is a cluster of buildings known as Webster’s Place two unique white dwellings and several store houses comprise the hamlet Here the Indians from the adjacent shores and for many leagues south along the sea coast come to barter their seal skins and their other peltries as well as oil which is extracted from the shark seal and whale receiving in return woolen and cotton goods bread flour tobacco and in fact every common article of food clothing or ornament they may desire Occasionally a fleet of canoes come from Vancouver Island to have a potlatch with their marine companies on their own land It is a novel sight to see these flotillas approaching from the ish shore At first they are descried distance on the crests of the quick ing waves and again they disapp the hollows of the undulation t brief time they near the shore with ured stroke of paddles and ke time with their spirited boat son they bound over the water under a of sail before the fresh coastWhen landing the long sharp b the canoe is turned to the foaming and as if by instinct it glides ov beach waves to the shore by the d ous flourish of the lithe sak-talm [(pad-]dle). From Bahada eastward to C Bay the American shore is high a many places precipitous but de wooded and opposite on the Va verside the same thick forest is covering a broken and mountaino gion On the borders of the bal village of Callams This tribe on merous and powerful is scattered the strait and around the bays and l of Admiralty Inlet upon a shore l more than a hundred miles but are very rapidly diminishing in nun and before many years will becom tinct They live by hunting and fi around their homes and never p the whale and seal as do the seatribes for their canoes are of a dif model being low and straight and adapted to the smoother interior w From Callam Bay still onward ul strait we find the same elevated wooded country diversified by banks of moderate height and na intervals about the mouths of the rivers the principal of which ar Lyre and Elwha whose source among the Olympian cañons ti come to Port Angelos which has harbor well protected from the pr ing westerly winds but somewha A meeting of Indians where gifts are exchanged 278 ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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posed in the opposite quarter This bay is formed by a long low sand spit called Ediz Hook on the extreme point of which stands the light house A few years ago Angelos was the port of entry and quite a settlement sprung up around the Custom house and marine hospital and a city was laid out on a scale commensurate with the anticipations of a coming Northern Pacific metropolis but after successive years the place was found to be difficult of access by sailing vessels on account of the calms that prevailed under the high land in the vicinity The town was built on the low flat near the beach and a midnight torrent at one time came rushing down the ravines from the mountains which swept all before it including the Government buildings into the bay Notwithstanding this disaster numerous dwellings and public houses again appeared but in 1867 the port of entry was changed to Port Townsend and with it many of the residents followed or sought employment elsewhere and from a much frequented commercial place where all foreign vessels as well as coasters dropped anchor now only a casual craft puts in for a harbor or a solitary plunger makes its periodical rounds with the mails and merchandise for the few remaining residents From Port Angelos to the entrance of Admiralty Inlet the land along the shore reaching back to the Olympian Range is of more moderate elevation than that before described still it is a wild broken country with here and there a logging camp farm house or a few Indian huts Opposite Ediz Hook close to the rocky beach is a village of the Callams with a picturesque burialground half concealed among the rank undergrowth while the giant firs and cottonwoods shade it from the midday sun One calm winter day we improved the opportunity for making a hurried sketch of the grounds and as we landed a trio of the inmates of the neighboring lodges joined our party and while engaged an old Chief watched intently with sullen countenance every mark of the pencil and as soon as he discovered our object he said to us through an interpreter I am one of the Chiefs of the Callams and outr own lands run east and west along the water farther than you can see The Callams once were a great many now we are very few But do you think we have butchered each other If you do you are mistaken for we no like fight All the dead under the ground here were good people and died with disease We assured him he must be speaking truth Then said he why do you make that paper And with a whirl and a grunt he hurried back to the village in great dudgeon The next day he came to our vessel with his face blazing in vermilion paint offering for sale a few ducks and salmon but when we accosted him he would not deign a look of recognition and feigned he had never before seen us The long low sandy tongue called New Dungeness Spit which is four leagues from Ediz Hook projects out into this great arm of the ocean which is here too broad to be called a strait a distance of two miles and may be regarded as the great impediment to the otherwise safe navigation Here vessels coming from sea in thick weather occasionally bring up and some have become total wrecks notwithstanding the glaring light that is elevated on a white and black tower a hundred feet above the water and a massive fog bell that constantly clangs its warning in measured strokes when thick weather precludes the sight of impending danger Dungeness Bay as it is familiarly called affords a fine shelter in westerly winds but it is exposed to the easterly gales that frequently blow with great force during the winter months From this point still on we come to Protection 1871 279 ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGET SOUVD

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tion Island the charming spot described by the distinguished old explorer Vancouver It is a peculiar looking islet presenting high banks to the north capped by greenfields and natural groves It protects the harbor of Port Discovery which is an ample bay free from hidden dangers with an unusual depth of water Near its head is the first milltown met with in this great lumber region Still on to the eastward we pass gray bluff faced table lands sparsely covered with trees or patches of cleared land with the primitive dwellings and surroundings of the pioneers Then we pass Point Wilson on the right Whidby Island to the left with Admiralty Head Light house appearing like a steepled church against the dark background And now we have fairly entered Admiralty Inlet then opening to the southward is the fine bay of Port Townsend which is five miles long and may average one and a quarter in width With a convenient depth of water well sheltered from prevailing winds and being so easy to enter or depart from with sailing vessels it has an advantage in this respect over all the other Sound ports The town of the same name as the bay is built on the west shore and has six hundred inhabitants It is the port of entry The Custom house with the commercial portion of the place is on the low flat close to the beach but the principal residences with other public buildings are on a beautiful table land immediately back When seen from that part of the bay connecting with the inlet it presents a pleasing aspect the green even plateau elevated above the waters of the grand estuary and dotted with neat dwellings and spired churches contrasts pleasantly with the clusters of natural shade trees and the belt of forest near affording a vivid rural picture The view from this point or when sailing through Admiralty Inlet is enchanting To the south are seen the fantastic peaks and chasms of the Olympian Chain to the north Mount Baker with Whidby Island which is called The Garden of the Sound in the foreground and far inland towering Rainier sparkles in its splendor of perpetual snows that wreathe its summit in marked relief over the boundless woodlands that blend with the surrounding landscape The adjacent waters too are often studded with ships careening under their flowing sails as they ply to and from the principal commercial ports of the world together with the motley coasting craft of every rig and size and the noisy steamers that sound their shrill whistles as they glide in all directions add life to the charming panorama Behind a belt of timber that skirts the town spreads out a beautiful valley garnished with cultivated fields and up the bay is seen the old military post known as The Station with its comfortable barracks and officers quarters fast going to decay Farther on is the site of a new milltown and on either shore may be seen the tidy habitations on the clearings or the rude cabin or tents of strolling bands of Indians This beautiful bay so easy of access was a favorite resort of the aquatic Indian in his canoe for he could float lazily with the changing tides to his chosen fishing grounds and should wind or wave arise a few strokes of his paddle would take him to a place of safety And on the right as you enter the spacious harbor nestled under the precipitous cliffs may be seen the modern lodges of the inhabitants of a once large village of the Callams who frequently make night hideous with their howlings in drunken brawl or by the incantations of their medicine men and among the great chiefs who still remain to see the last of their people waste away by the vices of civilization are the Duke of York Lord Jim General Scott and others of equally high sounding titles The whole life of the Indian is changed when 28o SEPT ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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it comes in contact with the habits and customs of the white immigrant changed too in such a manner as to sweep the doomed people like a tornado from their hunting and fishing grounds that were an Indian’s earthly paradise And but a few years will pass before the aboriginal race that once dwelt along the whole extent of these winding shores will be known only in history as they will be utterly extinct The Duke of York is quite a character who has brought himself frequently into notice sometimes in amusing ways During the summer of 1864 the veteran little Government steamer Shubrick then on revenue marine duty was lying quietly in the bay near the Duke’s unimposing palace and his Royal Highness appreciating the honor paddled off in his hias canim (great canoe) with his wife and they were duly received on board he introducing himself as Tyee Duke of York and his consort as Jenny Lind The pair were hospitably entertained and on their departure our distinguished visitor was promised a sword The weapon in question was a cast off implement of one of the Shubrick’s officers which had become rusty in its peaceful retirement and required much scouring with brick dust and oil to bring it to a shining polish Day after day the Duke called on board for his present and at last intimated that he did not like trifling The officer who was to make the coveted present asssured him that it was no trifling matter but on so momentous an occasion as the presentation of an elegant war weapon to so distinguished a personage which weapon had on its hilt the head of the American eagle a symbol of American liberty and which moreover was peculiarly emblematical of the game life of the aboriginal inhabitants might not the ceremony of donating the valued present take place not on the treacherous water but on terra firma 2 This laudatory harangue caused Vol VII 19 the old man’s eyes to glisten with delight I am happy said he and my heart is so full that it chokes me It shall take place in the heart of the city of Port Townsend and all that gives me pain is that many of my best warriors with their wives are away on the chuck (water), fishing for salmon so I can only assemble a few of my people At the appointed hour as the sun dipped behind the jagged peaks of the Olympian Mountains the Duke marshaled his clan of old men women and children and marched to the designated ground where they silently formed a crescent in a couching posture to hear the distinguished speakers on the occasion while a motley crowd of whites and half breeds formed a turbulent assemblage in front of the native horde which completely surrounded the chiefs and the delegation of officers who were present Then for a moment all became silent and the sword bearer and orator advanced to the old Chief and said I have the honor of presenting to the Duke of York whose tribal name is T chitz a ma kum a sword of polished steel as a token of respect and esteem toward the one great Chief of the Callams and as you receive it let it be a pledge of unfailing good faith toward the white man The sword was then received with all that rigid formality which characterizes the American savage and when grasped by him he spoke in loud measured tones through his interpreter as follows The Duke of York is deeply sensible of the honor conferred upon him and only deplores as will all the great men of his tribe that the whole Callam race could not be eye witness to the greatest honor ever conferred on one of their chiefs From this moment I am resolved never to take another sup of 1871 28I ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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the fire water which is always being smuggled into the camps of our tillecums (people) by vagabond whites and half breeds and this sword in my hands shall defend the good Boston-man against the attacks of any cultus Callam a bad Indian of the Callam tribe Lord Jim then rose and said I have been to many great potlatches I have fought and killed more than one white man in the last war Moreover only the last moon I was insulted and have been waiting to pick my time and man to lay him low and glut my vengeance But this great honor bestowed on our tribe through our Tyee T chitz ama hum makes up for all the injuries I have received and from this time I am for peace General Scott then came forward amid the clapping of hands of the promiscuous crowd and the guttural applause of the natives and remarked I have nothing to say only that I am a friend to all good whites I am a sworn enemy to the devils who sell us whisky be they King George-men or Boston and I am grateful for the honor conferred upon us at this time But the sun is down behind the hills and the night is chilly our old people here are sick and I think we all should go to our warm lodge fires Then with a simultaneous response all marched back to their rude tenements On the Fourth of July 1869 we happened to be at Port Townsend where we found the Americans who reside across the water at Victoria with their numerous English friends and many of the up sound people assembled to celebrate the day for what added much interest to the occasion was the presence in the bay of the United States steamer Pensacola bearing the flag of Admiral Thatcher The revenue cutter here swung to her anchor a small craft to be sure compared with the immense war vessel but a beautiful specimen of naval architecture and wh decked in her ample bunting graced t bay much to the delight of our wort Duke who caught the spirit of 76 and at an early hour headed a trol of his camp fellows who paraded befo their village with an American flag u side down howling and singing the wild inimitable songs But hardly had the old Chief end his morning exercise before he was board the cutter with his herald to t of his misfortune Ha said he t great sword that was given me by t big man in the Shubrick has been stol by a thieving tyee chief from Que Charlotte’s Island and I must join wi the Admiral and General Fowler in t celebration and it will break my hea to go without a sword and uniform I came to see if you can potlatch a old sword and hi-yu buttons plenty buttons Jenny Lind can sew them to me while I am eating breakfast But the chagrin that was manifest the old fellow’s countenance when was referred to the Admiral’s ship beyond imagination Yet like a forlo hope he and his companion dashed in their canoe to the hias pire ship gre steamer as they called her And to h overwhelming joy he was dressed o in a very distinguished uniform it bei a cross suit of Jack’s short seated tro sers with a marine’s coat and a cocke hat Once possessed of the glitteri equipment never was canoe paddled wi more swiftness to the shore and the arrayed in his showy toggery he w ready for the coming ceremonies But the Duke’s patriotism began flow so early in the day that before t time for marching to the grounds feared losing his spirit of 76 a added a constant supply of the oth spirit which had the baneful effect causing great weakness in his nethe limbs Hio he exclaimed If can t clattawah walk I can ride N[ew-][?] 282 SEP ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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ha for a hand cart get a hand cart hyak hyak quick and any two siwashes Indians that will haul me on to the hill where the Boston tillecums are shall have all my clothes except my galligaskins as soon as the day is over The desired vehicle came and received his Highness doubled up like a mammoth crawfish who was hauled by two sweating savages up to the shaded grounds where the exercises of the day had just closed But all united that the old Chief who delights in his acquired title more than in his hereditary name had rode in state to the scene of the celebration while all others high and low came and departed as pedestrians Leaving the entry port we pass over the deep extensive gulf rounding Point Marrowstone and ten miles farther on we come to Port Ludlow with its snug harbor and active lumber mills Then on to the southward a distance of five miles we enter Hood’s Canal and when threading its entire extent which is over sixty miles one can but admire the beautiful scenery that in many places reaches to the brink of the smooth waters which reflect the shelving rocks deep gorges and changing spurs and heighten the grandeur of the Olympian chain in its solitude Like all the shores of the strait inlet and sound a thick growth of timber fringes the beach or bank where not broken by the clearings and rolling tiers of the lumbermen In a sheltered bight on the south side of the canal three leagues from its mouth is Hahamish Harbor now Seabeck a noted lumber port of Washington Territory At the entrance of the canal a tongue of land one mile in width separates it from the land locked bay of Port Gamble On its west shore is the largest mill town of the Pacific Coast Here lumber is manufactured in its va rious forms and dimensions as if by magic and all is hurry and bustle ships steamers and small craft crowd the wharves or are moving in and out with their heavy cargoes and booms of logs Night and day nothing can be heard but the puffing steam the hum of the many saws the rattle of boards timber and deals as they shoot from the mills on to the piers and into the ships holds Besides the two saw mills that can produce one hundred and fifty thousand feet of manufactured lumber daily there is a planing mill a flouring mill an iron and brass foundry a machine shop and smithery All are crowded together on the low point while in the rear on higher land cluster the dwellings of the inhabitants nearly all of whom are employed by the Puget Mill Company The population numbers about four hundred whose cottages are clustered upon the gentle slope or scattered along the shore of the bay While strolling around the outskirts of the settlement our attention was drawn to the cemetery situated on a swell of land that rises above the lively hamlet and commanding a fine view in the distance It had been surrounded with white palings by the combined efforts of the ladies in the vicinity which added much interest to this sequestered repository of the dead The day of our visit was dark and misty which shed a gloom on all within vision filling us with sadness in sympathy with all those bereaved ones who had followed their friends or relations to their last earthly abode A breathless stillness seemed to hold us to the sacred spot and as we gazed northward over the expanse of bay and inlet we could see the cold broken lines of the far off mountain summits as the fitful clouds rose and fell and the gray cliffs and dark forests were reflected in the mirrored element as if to lend an air of mourning to the surrounding landscape Not an Indian could be seen ruffling the smooth waters with canoe or paddle or breaking the solemn silence 1871 283 ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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by whoop or yell and the hum of yonder mills came but faintly to our ears Across the harbor in full view were the remaining lodges of an Indian village tenanted by the few who remain of aboriginal descent and near the foot of a high green bank were ranged in varied structure the monumental graves of deceased chiefs and warriors with torn banners waving above them while others appeared screened with scarlet cloth and still another stood out like a tomb with glass windows as if to admit the light of heaven to his otherwise dark dank resting place But our reverie was broken by the harsh steam whistle at the mills calling the workmen from their labors to the noonday meal and we left the hallowed place guarded only by a flock of ravens perched upon the firs and cedars at some distance Leaving Port Gamble or Teekalet we double a high rounding point called Foul weather Bluff from thence we continue on up Admiralty Inlet passing Possession Sound on our left then southward till we come to the large open bay of Port Madison on the south bank of which branches the Skookum Chuck into Bainbridge Island a distance of two miles Along its shores is Port Madison with its extensive mills that manufacture all descriptions of lumber and the ship yards from which the finest vessels of the coast have been launched Probably no place in the Territory has the facilities for the combined enterprises of milling and ship building as this From the head of Port Madison Bay a narrow passage joins the estuary that bounds the south and western sides of Bainbridge Island and opposite on the main land is Port Orchard once a place of some importance but since the destruction of its mills by fire it has become nearly deserted On the eastern side of Admiralty Inlet in latitude about 46 4 is an indentation known as Elliot Bay at the head of which is the flourishing town of Seattle resting on a prominent slope with its many tasteful residences and churches and the university buildings together with the whole business portion of the place present quite an imposing view across the water where in a snug cove of Bainbridge Island is Port Blakely with its mills cutting the various kinds of lumber suited to home and foreign markets On Duwamish Point that intervenes between the two ports is another hamlet with its steam mills called Freeport and on the southern extremity of the bay the Sinowamis or Duwamish River whose source is at the foot of the Cascade Mountains unites with the water from the ocean and divides the productive valley that reaches to the rugged highlands This alluvial plain continues on along the White River which is a tributary to the Duwamish reaching nearly to the base of the Cascade chain A sharp rolling land swell is seen immediately back of Seattle and just beyond rises the silvery Lake Washington studded with islands of emerald foliage and surrounded by the undulating tierra clothed in wooded wealth beneath which lie the rich veins of coal that have already become a valuable article of export from the coming metropolis From Seattle we continue southward sailing through Colvas Pass or around the eastern side of Vashon and Maury Islands passing a new settlement called Tacoma where the leviathan trees are converted into all the dimensions of building materials required for export Then around Point Defiance and running the narrows we come into Puget Sound The division of the great inland waters bearing this familiar name is but ten or twelve miles in extent But now the whole water region including De Fuca Strait Admiralty Inlet Possession Sound with the many arms branching from the main body is generally 284 SEPT ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGE T SOUAVD

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termed Puget Sound and particular names seem only to designate or locate prominent points or peculiar places On the south shore of old Puget Sound the town of Steilacoom is scattered over a slightly descending clearing with a population of about three hundred Its harbor is spacious and its scenery is made up of magnificent views of the peaks of St Helen’s Rainier Adams and Hood with the ragged Coast Range all emerging as from a sea of forest and the adjacent interior is like a natural park the avenues running in every direction with ponds and lakes that sparkle like gems in the sunlight And about the shores on either side of the town the pleasant sound of water falls may be heard as they come dashing down from the broken and giddy heights where the melting snows supply the motive power that turns the wheels of the mills that grind the grain and weave the wool of this prolific country From Steilacoom to Olympia you pass through a labyrinth of islands and inlets and around points bearing the names of distinguished employés of the Hudson Bay Company who were the early explorers as well as those of many of the officers of our honored navy and you may choose your watery way either though Balch’s Passage or to the south of Anderson Island where a glimpse may be had of old Fort Nisqually Then by a serpentine course you enter Budd Inlet and at its head is the capital of Washington Territory its broad streets lined with ornamental trees that shade the many pleasant residences The town is divided by a nameless rivulet the business portion of which is called Olympia proper while the other is named Swan Town after one of the earliest settlers Then there is the village of Tumwater contiguous which is built along the noisy stream whence the place takes its name which affords an immense water power Olympia is the nearest point on the sound to the Columbia River and here the connecting overland travel concentrates Moreover it is the centre of all the elements that make up the Government of the Territory it being the residence of the Governor and other Federal officers as well as many of the local leading men of the country and when united forms the agreeable and hospitable society for which the capital town is noted It is confidently expected by the Olympians that the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad will be at or near this city in embryo and it would seem that their ex pectations are not without foundation but as there are so many eligible places for a terminus along the water way from Cape Classet to the head of navigation even the directors of the enterprise are puzzled to decide where to stop the iron horse Olympia has a population of over fifteen hundred and as it extends itself will absorb the village of Tumwater with its power of falling water where doubtless large manufactories will spring up which will increase business and add wealth to its connection Thus we have endeavored to briefly describe the peculiar arm of the Pacific with its many branches which in the main trend to the south but the direction of the bold waters are more varied than the points of the compass sometimes running in the mountain gorges again meandering through the rich bottom lands or surrounding islands till lost in the mazes of its own intricacies and although the great body reaches into the heart of the Territory still to the northward branches Possession Sound which unites with the Gulf of Georgia The southern part of Whidby Island separates Possession Sound from Admiralty Inlet and about two leagues from thence is Point Elliot where upon the low beach is a trading place called Mucleteo then a league farther on we come to Hat Island that fronts the mouth 1871 285 ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGA T SOUAVID

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of Sinahomis River which drains a section of rich land adjoining the picturesque ridges and remote valleys of the Cascade cordillera then still northward is Port Susan with Camano Island dividing the water between that and Port Gardiner The south extreme of the island is named Allan Point and opposite away to the eastward is the bay and Indian Reservation of Tulalip with the Catholic Mission school buildings a little back in a pleasant glen And hereabout was the central hunting ground of the Scatchat tribe of Indians whose domain included an extensive land upon the main as well as Camano and Whidby Islands but they like all the rest of the aborigines are rapidly decreasing in numbers and changing in mode of life which hurries them on in their semi civilized career of destruction From Port Susan and Port Gardiner the chain of waters continues northward expanding into Penn’s Cove and across to Utsalady Nothing can be more fascinating to the eye of a sea worn mariner than the snug cove where the rolling prairie appears like a cultivated field which is divested of that wild appearance and is unlike any thing else seen on the Northern Pacific Coast The whole of Whidby Island is regarded as a fertile spot blooming in spontaneous production in striking contrast with the sombre forest that borders it to the east and the waste of water that dashes against its sandy and rock bound shores And in this beautiful haven on its south shore is a hamlet called Coupeville named after its first settler Captain Coupe well known as one of Neptune’s own who run his bark the Success through Deception Pass in early times which now is considered impracticable for large vessels under sail and steamers only venture upon its troubled waters at a fav able stage of the tide Oak Bay lies between Penn’s C and Utsalady It has a highly cultiv ed section half encircling it that ri and reaches back till it meets the t gled wildwoods Then across to east is seen the escape of steam fi the mills at Utsalady which is an tensive manufactory of lumber but pecially the point where nearly all masts and spars are obtained for China East India and European n kets From this the northern mill to in the Territory are seen the maje peaks and slopes of the Cascade Rar that emerge from the clouds and sh the valley where the richest bottom l is found extending northward to Belli ham Bay A water course runs thro it where the sound steamers ply and fro keeping up constant and reg communication with Seattle and bol places Then comes a cluster of islands the varied forms of volcanic uphea clothed with fern vine and fir that n the full tides that wash the rugged sho The varied scenery of this sea of isla can hardly be described for it is e changing its grand views as you c through the curling eddies And her the Indian’s thoroughfare where he s his canoe between the American and English coast and here the smugg find a covert to pursue their nefari traffic with the neutral island of Juan to flee to when pursued ther avoiding detection The real resources of Washing Territory will not be fully developed the railroad brings the great chair fresh water lakes that are linked v the River St Lawrence and the Atl tic into communion with the saltters of the Sound 286 ABOUT THE SHORES OF PUGET SOUAVD SE