Kowrach, “Mie. Charles Pandosy, O.M.I.: A missionary of the Northwest”
Kowrach, Edward J. 1992. “Mie. Charles Pandosy, O.M.I.: A missionary of the Northwest.” Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon.
Kowrach was a priest (which order?) who lived in Veradale–the Spokane Valley–in Washington state.
I was lucky to find a copy of this book autographed by him and by legendary local publisher, Glen Adams. This book is less a biography of Pandosy than a narrative of the troubles between the Yakamas led by Kamiakin and the USA.
Coupla notes. It’s useful to read these regional history books with an eye out for Chinook, which often goes unindexed and even uncommented on:
page 63: “The Boston men (Americans) were resented by the natives.”
page 94: About the 1855 killing of Andrew J. Bolon, Indian agent to the Yakamas [quoted from Lucullus V. McWhorter’s “Tragedy of the Wahk-Shum”]: “The White man cried out (in Chinook): ‘Do not kill me. I did not come to fight you!'”
page 104: “Written [by Major Gabriel J. Rains] on silk oilcloth and addressed to Kamiakin and [sic] Tyhee and in the corner the initials S.O.B., the letter was hung on a pole to be picked up by the Indians.” [Tyhee = tyee ‘chief’, so Kamiakin Tyhee would be one of the usual ways of addressing someone as ‘Chief Kamiakin’. Compare with mentions of ‘Lui Taii”, ‘Chief Louis’, in the Kamloops region. I haven’t determined whose initials SOB might be–maybe they really mean ‘son of a bitch’, a term documented in the Northwest as early as Lewis & Clark’s journals.]
page 195: “Among the Indians first seen at the foot of the ridge, was one, evidently a Tamanowos man (Indian Doctor), who performed curious antics, apparently to encourage the warriors and draw the first fire from the soldiers.” [Approximately October 4th, 1855.]
page 213: Granville O. Haller, U.S. A[rmy], wrote a memoir of the Yakama war of 1855-1856, reproduced here. Quoting from it in his spelling: “Strictly speaking, the Indians cannot frame the tongue to pronounce the letter r. They habitually substitute the l for r, as l-i-c-e- for R-i-c-e; to-mollow for to-morrow, etc. But the Indians about the Dalles of the Columbia River (a long narrow trough formed by a chasm in the basalt rock, through which the waters from the Rocky Mountains follow, on their way towards the Pacific Ocean) make use of a peculiar sound, which no combination of the sounds in the English Alphabet can represent, and which, but very few White people can imitate. Its nearest sound, by english letters, might be s-k-r-r rolled into one quick sound, wholely indescribable on paper. The letter r is frequently made use of, to indicate this sound. In his Astoria, Washington Irving speaks of the Wishrams at the Dalles. These Indians pronounce it Wish-skrrams.” [This section is discussing Chinook Jargon and the voiceless uvular fricative sound /X/ so common in regional languages.]
page 219: “…pointing to the Willamette Indians, who had lost their lands, by listening to the oily tongue of the Bostons (Yankees) who were evidently only Liars, as several years had elapsed without paying the Indians One Dollar for their lands.”
page 222: “Major Bolon…taught them, the fatal idea, that if he called for soldiers, they were obliged to obey his call, and thus he was a grreater chief than the Soldier’s Chief, (to an Indian, and [sic] Officer in his gold lace, is a very great man)…” [I infer that all this was conveyed in Chinook as well. See the following note.]
page 240: “Colonel Wright did not give Kamiakin due credit for his penetration [perceptiveness]. Kamiakin saw that the ‘Soldier Tyee’ (Commanding Officer of the Soldiers) and the ‘Hy-ass Tyee, of the Cultus Tillicum’ (Governor [Isaac I. Stevens] of the now combatant Whites) had Mox tum-tums (literally two hearts, meaning two policies)[,] that their views were antagonistic…”
–your &c., Dave Robertson