“Haul” as a Métis/Canadian word, too
We understand Chinuk Wawa’s word hál ‘to pull’ as coming from English ‘haul’.
“City Dray” (image credit: Pinterest)
Some have pointed out that a particular source might be the specialized nautical English of the sailors aboard maritime fur-trade vessels in the earliest days of contact with Chinookans.
“Haul sail” and “haul yards” come to mind.
The nautical etymology may be sound (so to speak) — CW hál may be of old enough vintage to have come in during that era, along with plenty of Nootka Jargon words.
But I’ve been noticing another factor: the speech of the Canadian and/or Métis people who were the majority of the land-based fur trade workforce, and who were the majority of the dads in households where creole CW took form around Fort Vancouver.
- The St Laurent (Manitoba) Michif French dictionary (2016) contains ‘drag (to)’ < awli > and ‘pull’ < awl >. The spelling “aw” there stands for /a/ as in modern English “ma” or “pa”. I take < awli > as the English loan ‘haul’ + French infinitive -er.
- Allard and Laverdure’s (1983) Turtle Mountain (North Dakota) Michif dictionary defines ‘dray’ as en wawginn for pour kaykiyuw kaykwuy ay-li hauleehk — not all of which I can interpret, but it looks to be something like ‘a strong wagon for everything to be hauled’. (Compare French une waguine fort(e) pour…; Kahkiyuw kaykwuy would be ‘everything’; ay-li seems to form subordinate clauses.)
- Geddes’s description of an Acadian French dialect shows (page 237) a verb /hɔ:l/ of English and/or French origin.
Might “haul” have already been part of these people’s famously mixed speech by CW times? I’d think so; haler appears to be quite an old Norman-French word.
The earliest occurrences of CW hál that I find are in fact from the Fort Vancouver era, in Palmer 1847 and Lionnet 1853.
So, Métis speech may have influenced the history of this word in Jargon.