St Nazarius & St Celsus (part 6)

Nazarius and Celsus walking on the sea - Clermont-Ferrand - BM - ms. 0069, f.486, Roman breviary, c.1482 (enluminures)

(Image credit: My Albion)

In concluding our forensic investigation, we are tantalized to learn that there is even more of this previously unknown text out there waiting to be found…

(PUB) Wik iaka tiki kaltash pli, kaltash mitlait:
‘He didn’t like to play around (or) sit around:’
(MS) Ilo iaka tiki kaltash pli, kaltash mitlait
‘He didn’t like to play around (or) sit around’

(PUB) iaka kwanisim tomtom kopa ShK, kopa sahali ilihi;
‘he always thought of Jesus (and) of heaven;’
(MS) iaka kwanisim tomtom ko [sic] ShK kopa ST ilihi:
‘he always thought o[f] Jesus (and) of God’s land:’

(PUB) iaka aias tiki mamuk chako kanamokst tanas ayu
‘he loved to gather a number of’
(MS) iaka aias tiki mamuk kanamokst tanas ayu
‘he loved to put together a number of’

(PUB) tanas man pi mamuk komtaks ST pi ShK kopa klaska.
‘youths and teach (about) God and Jesus to them.’
(MS) tanas man pi mamuk komtaks ST pi ShK [illegible] kata ShK pus iaka chako kopa ukuk ilihi.
‘youths and teach (about) God and Jesus, what Jesus was like when he came to this earth.’

(PUB) Iaka siisim kopa klaska kata
(MS) Iaka siisim kopa klaska kata
‘He recounted to them what’

(PUB) ShK pus iaka chako kopa ukuk ilihi; kata kopa Bitliim, pi kopa kanawi ikta ShK mamuk pus iaka mitlait kopa ukuk ilihi.
‘Jesus was like when he came to this earth; how things were at Bethlehem, and about everything Jesus did when he was on this earth.’
(MS) kopa Bitliim, ItS.
‘it was like at Bethlehem, etc.’

——————-

(PUB) Ayu tanas man chako kolan iaka wawa;
‘Many youths came to hear him talk;’

(PUB) klaska aias tiki kolan iaka siisim, kakwa iaka tolo
‘they loved hearing his stories, so he won’
(MS) pi klaska aias tiki kolan iaka wawa. Kakwa iaka tolo
‘and they loved hearing him talk. So he won’

(PUB) drit ayu tilikom kopa styuil. Iht iht son iaka
‘quite a lot of people to religion. Some days he’
(MS) tanas ayu tilikom kopa styuil. [paragraph break in (manuscript] Iht iht son klaska iaka
‘quite a few people to religion. Some days they he’

(PUB) tlap aias klahawiam kanamokst Nasariyus: kaltash
(MS) tlap aias klahawiam kanamokst Nasir. Kaltash
(both) ‘experienced misery together with Nazarius: no-good’

(PUB) tilikom ihi klaska, mash ston pi ilihi kopa klaska.
(MS) tilikom ihi klaska, mash ston pi ilihi kopa klaska.
‘people laughed (at) them, threw stones and dirt at them.’

——————————

(PUB) Iht son iht tawn taii kopa Pasayuks ilihi
‘One day a local leader in France’
(MS) Iht son iht taii tawn taii kopa Pasayuks ilihi
‘One day a leader local leader in France’

(PUB) mamuk kaw iaka, pi mamuk hwip iaka pus mamuk
(MS) mamuk k’aw iaka pi mamuk hwip iaka pus mamuk
(both) ‘tied him up and whipped him to make’

(PUB) iaka patlach insins kopa kaltash goc, pi wik
(MS) iaka patlach insins kopa kaltash goc pi wik
‘him offer incense to the(ir) worthless gods, but’

(PUB) iaka tolo. Iaka tomtom ukuk taii, pus
‘didn’t succeed. This leader thought that if’
(MS) kata iaka tolo. Iaka tomtom pus
‘couldn’t succeed. He thought that if’

(PUB) iaka tanas hwip ukuk tanas man, aiak iaka
‘he whipped the boy a little, he would soon’
(MS) iaka tanas [h]wip iaka, pi aiak iaka
‘he whipped him a little, then he would soon’

(PUB) patlach insins kopa kaltash goc, pi wik kakwa.
(MS) patlach insins kopa kaltash goc pi wik kakwa.
(both) ‘offer incense to the worthless gods, but it wasn’t so.’

(PUB) Pus klaska ayu hwip iaka, Silsyus ilo krai,
‘When they were whipping him, Celsus didn’t cry,’
(MS) Pus klaska hwip iaka, Silsyus ilo krai,
‘When they whipped him, Celsus didn’t cry,’

(PUB) ilo sik tomtom; iaka nanich kopa sahali ilihi pi
(MS) ilo sik tomtom: iaka nanich kopa SI pi
(both) ‘(and) wasn’t sad; he looked to heaven and’

(PUB) iaka wawa:
(MS) iaka wawa: [no paragraph break in the manuscript]
(both) ‘he said:’

——————————-

(PUB) = Maika piltin man; alki ST patlach lapilitas
(MS) Maika piltin man, alki ST patlach lapilitas
(both) ‘You are a sinful man; God will give a punishment’

(PUB) kopa maika kopa ukuk maika mamuk.
(MS) kopa maika kopa ukuk maika mamuk [no paragraph break in the manuscript]
(both) ‘to you for what you’re doing.’

—————————

(PUB) Tawn taii chako ilip saliks kopa iaka pi wawa
(MS) Tawn taii chako ilip saliks kopa iaka pi wawa
(both) ‘The local leader got angrier at him and said’

(PUB) kopa solshirs pus klaska mamuk ilip skukum hwip
‘to the soldiers for them to whip’
(MS) kopa solshirs pus mamuk ilip skukum hyuip [sic]
‘to the soldiers to whip’

(PUB) iaka. Pi chako ayu pilpil klahani kopa iaka itluil.
‘him harder. And a lot of blood came from his body.’
(MS) iaka pi chako klahani ayu pilpil kopa iaka itluil.
‘him harder and there came out a lot of blood from his body.’

—————————

(PUB) Kimta kopa ukuk, taii impror Niro chako
(MS) Kimta kopa ukuk, taii impror Niro chako
(both) ‘After this, the emperor Nero became’

(PUB) komtaks pus Nasariyus iaka styuil kopa ShK, iaka
‘aware that Nazarius prayed to Jesus, (and) he’
(MS) komtaks pus Nasariyus iaka styuil kopa Kristian styuil. Iaka
‘aware that Nazarius prayed in the Christian religion. He’

(PUB) wawa kopa solshirs pus klaska lolo iaka kopa
‘said to the soldiers for them to take him to’
(MS) wawa pus solshirs lolo iaka kopa
‘told the soldiers to take him to’

(PUB) Rom, pi klaska lolo Silsyus kanamokst.
(MS) Rom, pi klaska lolo Silsyus kanamokst.
(both) ‘Rome, and they took Celsus along (too).’

——————————

(PUB) Pus klaska k’o kopa Rom Niro ayu wawa
‘When they arrived at Rome Nero kept saying’
(MS) Pus iaka k’o kopa Rom Niro ayu wawa
‘When he arrived at Rome Nero kept saying’

(PUB) kopa Nasariyus pus iaka mash iaka styuil, pi
‘to Nazarius for him to leave his religion, and’
(MS) kopa iaka pus iaka mash iaka ShK (?) styuil pi
‘to him for him to leave his Jesus religion and’

(PUB) pus iaka kilapai kopa tamanwas styuil, iaka
‘for him to return to pagan religion, he’
(MS) kilapai kopa tomwanwas (?) styuil. Iaka
‘return to pagan religion. He’

(PUB) wawa:
(MS) wawa [no paragraph break in manuscript version]
(both) ‘said:’

——————————-

(PUB) = Alki naika patlach ayu chikmin kopa maika, pi
(MS) Alki naika patlach ayu chikmin kopa maika pi
(both) ‘I will give lots of money to you, and’

(PUB) naika mamuk aias taii maika.
(MS) naika mamuk aias taii maika.
(both) ‘I will make you a great nobleman.’

—————————–

(PUB) Nasariyus wawa:
‘Nazarius replied:’
(MS) Pi Nasir wawa, [here the known manuscript pages end; it appears there were more which we might eventually find in archives, since the PUB version continues on:]
‘But Nazarius replied,’

———————————

(all PUB:)

= Kaltash iht man tolo kanawi ikta kopa ukuk ilihi pus iaka lost iaka sili pi
‘ “It means nothing for a man to win everything on this earth if he loses his soul and’

klatwa kopa kikuli paia.
‘goes to hell.” ‘

——————————

Niro chako saliks, pi wawa kopa solshirs pus mash klaska kopa solt chok pus klaska
‘Nero got angry, and told the soldiers to throw them in the sea so they’

aiak mimlus kopa solt chok.
‘would quickly drown in the saltwater.’

————————————

Solshirs mamuk kakwa. Klaska lolo Nasariyus pi Silsyus saia kopa solt chok, pi
‘The soldiers did so. They took Nazarius and Celsus far out to sea, and’

klaska mash klaska kopa chok. Iawa solshirs tomtom pus klaska mimlus, pi klaska
‘they threw them in the saltwater. Then the soldiers figured they had died, and they’

kilapai kopa ilihi. Pi wik lili klaska nanich ukuk mokst man kuli kopa solt chok:
‘went back to land. But soon they saw those two men walking on the sea:’

solshirs tomtom pus tamanwas klaska, pi Nasariyus pi Silsyus wawa kopa klaska,
‘the soldiers thought they were spirits, but Nazarius and Celsus spoke to them,’

mamuk komtaks ShK pi ST kopa klaska: pi kanawi ukuk solshirs chako mamuk
‘teaching (about) Jesus and God to them: and all those soldiers came to’

nawitka kopa klaska wawa, pi klaska ashnu kopa Nasariyus pi klaska chako wash.
‘believe in their words, and they knelt to Nazarius and they were baptized.’

——————————–

Nasariyus pi Silsyus wiht kuli kanawi kah kopa Itali, lolo ST wawa kopa tilikom.
‘Nazarius and Celsus again traveled all over Italy, carrying God(‘s) word to people.’

Klaska wiht chako kopa Milan kah Anolinyus wiht iskom klaska; pi iaka mamuk cim
‘They also came to Milan where Anolinus again got hold of them; and he wrote’

kopa Niro pus ikta iaka mamuk kopa klaska; pi Niro wawa… [the published version ends here]
‘to Nero about what he should do with them; and Nero answered…’

Along with the abrupt lack of manuscript pages to correspond with these last paragraphs, the fact that these end in mid-sentence suggests that the originally composed text continued still further. More searching of archives is called for, as it stands a good chance of turning up even more of this already unusually substantial Chinuk Wawa text!

To put together all the observations we’ve made about these two versions of one story:

  • It appears we’ve discovered a previously unknown text in Chinook Jargon.
  • It’s rather long (roughly 1,500+ words).
  • Its anonymous author seems to be Father Thomas, OMI — a man who is otherwise not mentioned in Jargon history.
  • Its date is the mid-1890s.
  • Like the vast majority of material preserved in this language, it’s written in the unique and now endangered Chinook Writing alphabet of British Columbia, Canada.

That last fact seems to have ensured that this document has never before been researched. Nor has the enormous majority of Chinook Writing materials.

It’s appropriate here to end on a shiningly positive note for the holidays: My research is changing all of this. I have read every word (in Chinuk Wawa and a dozen other languages) of every known issue of Kamloops Wawa, as well as every other known document in Chinook Writing — large books, numerous personal letters, inscriptions on graves. I’m making all of it gradually into usable material for the many hundreds of people learning and revitalizing “the Jargon”. Expect lots more to come!

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