St Nazarius & St Celsus (part 3)

nazarius celsius milan

(Image credit: PetraLamb7.blogspot.com)

The deeper we delve into our Chinuk Wawa mystery manuscript, the more comes to light…

(Go back to parts 1 and 2)

To pick an arbitrary chunk more of our document for today, I’ll present the rest of what’s published in Kamloops Wawa‘s issue from 120 years ago this month (#159, page 185).

My forensic linguistic/textual analysis comments will be waaay down there at the end! Now have yourself a merry little practice at reading “the Jargon” in the meantime…

(PUB)     Iaka chako aias hloima alta.
(MS)     Iaka chako aias hloima alta. [Manuscript continues on without a paragraph break.]
(both)     ‘He became quite different then.’

 

(PUB)     Ankati iaka kaltash mitlait, ilo mamuk, kopit pli iaka tomtom kanawi son; pi alta, wik
(MS)     Ankati iaka kaltash mitlait, ilo mamuk, kopit pli iaka tomtom kanawi son. Pi alta, wik
(both)     ‘Formerly he lounged around, not working, only thinking of playing all day; but now,’

(PUB) kata iaka kaltash mitlait, kanawi son iaka styuil, iaka klatwa nanich sik tilikom, iaka
(MS) kata iaka kaltash mitlait, iaka styuil kanawi son iaka klatwa nanich sik tilikom, iaka
(both) ‘he was unable to lounge around, he prayed every day(,) he visited sick peole, he’

(PUB) mamuk komtaks ST kopa tilikom, iaka tolo tilikom kopa styuil.
‘taught (about) God to people, he won people for religion.’
(MS) mamuk komtaks ST kopa ilo styuil tilikom. [Manuscript goes on without a paragraph break.]
‘taught (about) God to nonreligious people.’

 

(PUB)     Ankati iaka mitlait ayu chikmin pi ayu tlus iktas;
‘He used to have lots of money and lots of good things;’
(MS)     Ankati iaka mitlait ayu chikmin pi ayu aias tlus iktas.
‘He used to have lots of money and lots of beautiful things.’ 

(PUB) alta iaka patlach kanawi iaka chikmin kopa klahawiam
‘now he gave all his money to poor’
(MS) Alta iaka patlach ukuk kanawi iaka chikmin kopa klahawiam
‘Now he gave that all his money to poor’

(PUB) tilikom. Ankati iaka sahali tomtom; wik
(MS) tilikom [Manuscript page 2:] Ankati iaka S [sic!] tomtom wik
(both) ‘people. He used to be arrogant; there was no’

(PUB) kata iaka klatwa kanamokst klahawiam tilikom;
(MS) kata iaka klatwa kanamokst klahawiam tilikom.
(both) ‘way he would go about with poor people;’

(PUB) pi alta iaka kwanisim mitlait kanamokst klahawiam
‘but now he always was with poor’
(MS) Pi alta iaka mitlait kanamokst klahawiam
‘But now he was with poor’

(PUB) tilikom; iaka aias tiki klaska, kopa ukuk
(MS) tilikom iaka aias tiki klaska kopa ukuk
(both) ‘people; he loved them, because’

(PUB) klaska tiki ShK.
(MS) klaska tiki ShK. [Manuscript goes on without a paragraph break.]
(both) ‘they loved Jesus Christ.’

 

(PUB)     Ankati iaka mitlait kopa iaka papa aias tlus haws
‘He used to live at his father’s beautiful house’
(MS)     Ankati iaka mitlait kopa iaka papa iaka mama aias tlus haws
‘He used to live at his father (and) mother’s beautiful house’

(PUB) Iaka ayu ihi, ayu pli kanamokst iaka tilikom.
‘He laughed a lot, played a lot with his friends.’
(MS) iaka ayu ihi ayu pli kanamokst
‘he laughed a lot, played a lot together [sic]

(PUB) Pi alta, wik kata iaka makmak kopa iaka papa iaka
‘But now, he wouldn’t eat at his father’s’
(MS) pi alta chako aias hloima kopa iaka. Wik kata iaka makmak kanamokst iaka papa iaka mama.
‘but now a strange thing had happend to him. He wouldn’t eat with his father (and) his mother.’

(PUB) haws; kanawi ikta klaska makmak ukuk tamanwas
‘house; everything that they ate, those pagan’
(MS) Kanawi ikta klaska makmak
‘Everything that they ate’

(PUB) tilikom ankati, klaska patlach kopa kaltash goc:
‘people long ago, they gave (some) to the(ir) worthless gods:’
(MS) klaska patlach kopa kaltash goc,
‘they gave (some) to the(ir) worthless gods,’

(PUB) wik kata iaka kuli kah kanamokst iaka tilikom,
‘he wouldn’t go around anywhere with his friends,’
(MS) wik kata iaka kuli kanamokst klaska
‘he wouldn’t go around with them’

(PUB) pus kah klaska klatwa iawa wiht klaska
(MS) pus kah klaska klatwa iawa wiht klaska
(both) ‘if they went anywhere, there they would also’

(PUB) mamuk styuil kopa kaltash goc.
(MS) mamuk styuil kopa kaltash goc.
(both) ‘pray to the(ir) worthless gods.’

 

(PUB)     Iaka papa iaka mama pi iaka tilikom ayu sik
‘His father (and) his mother and his friends were very upset’
(MS)     Klaska ayu sik
‘They were very upset’

(PUB) tomtom pus iaka iskom ShK iaka styuil; klaska
‘that he would take up Jesus’s religion; they’
(MS) tomtom pus iaka iskom styuil, pi klaska
‘that he would take up religion, and they’

(PUB) ayu wawa kopa iaka pus iaka kilapai kopa tamanwas
(MS) ayu wawa kopa iaka pus iaka kilapai kopa tomanwas
(both) ‘kept telling him to return to pagan’

(PUB) mamuk; pi wik kata: iaka tomtom kopa ShK mimlus
‘ways; but (he) wouldn’t: he thought of Jesus Christ dying’
(MS) mamuk pi wik kata: iaka nanich kopa kata ShK iaka mimlus
‘ways but (he) wouldn’t: he looked at how Jesus Christ died’

(PUB) kopa lakrwa, pi iawa iaka chako skukum iaka tomtom.
‘on the cross, and then his heart became strong.’
(MS) kopa lakrwa iawa chako skukum iaka tomtom.
‘on the cross then his heart became strong.’

 

(PUB)     Ayu Roman tanas man, iaka tilikom ankati
‘Many Roman youths, who had been his friends formerly’
(MS)     Pi ayu Roman tanas man, iaka tilikom ankati,
‘And many Roman youths, who had been his friends formerly,’

(PUB) chako ayu tomtom kopa Nasariyus: ikta iaka mamuk
(MS) chako ayu tomtom kopa Nasariyus; ikta iaka mamuk,
(both) ‘started to have doubts about Nazarius; what was he doing,’

(PUB) kah iaka kwanisim klatwa; wik kata wiht klaska
‘where was he always going; no longer could they’
(MS) kah iaka klatwa wik kata wiht klaska
‘where was he going(,) no longer could they’

(PUB) nanich iaka chako pli kanamokst klaska kakwa ankati.
‘see him coming to play with them as before.’
(MS) nanich iaka chako pli kanamokst klaska. [Manuscript goes on without a paragraph break.] 
‘see him coming to play with them.’

 

(PUB)      Kakwa klaska ayu tomtom kopa ukuk; kimta
‘So they were doubtful about this; afterwards’
(MS)     Kakwa klaska ayu tomtom kopa ukuk pi kimta
‘So they were doubtful about this and afterwards’

(PUB) klaska chako komtaks pus Kristian iaka, iaka
‘they learned that he was a Christian, he’
(MS) klaska chako komtaks pus Kristian iaka, pus iaka
‘they learned that he was a Christian, that he’

(PUB) iskom ShK iaka styuil. Iawa klaska ayu
(MS) iskom ShK iaka styuil. Iawa klaska ayu
(both) ‘had accepted Jesus’s religion. Then they kept’ 

(PUB) wawa kopa iaka: = “Ikta mamuk maika styuil
(MS) wawa kopa iaka: Ikta mamuk maika styuil
(both) ‘asking him: “Why do you pray’

(PUB) kopa ukuk Shyu mimlus kopa lakrwa?” Kakwa
‘to that Jew who died on a cross?” So’
(MS) kopa ukuk man [?] mimlus kopa lakrwa, ShK. Kakwa
‘to that man [?] who died on a cross, Jesus? So’

(PUB) klaska ayu ihi kopa iaka, klaska tomtom pus
‘they kept laughing at him, they thought’
(MS) klaska chako ihi tomtom ayu ihi kopa iaka klaska klaska [sic] tomtom pus
‘they became amused kept laughing at him(,) they they [sic] thought’

(PUB) piltin iaka.
(MS) piltin iaka.
(both) ‘he must be crazy.’

 

(PUB)     Pi kaltash ukuk. Nasariyus drit skukum iaka
(MS)     Pi kaltash ukuk. Nasariyus drit skukum iaka
(both)     ‘But no matter. Nazarius was really resolute,’

(PUB) tomtom, pi ShK iaka [sic], kakwa iaka chako kwanisim
‘and Jesus [helped] him, so he kept getting’
(MS) tomtom, pi ShK mamuk [h]ilp iaka kakwa iaka chako kwanisim
‘and Jesus helped him so he kept getting’

(PUB) ilip tlus, pi wik lili kanawi Kristian tilikom
‘better, and soon all the Christian people’
(MS) ilip skukum tomtom. Pi wik lili kanawi Katolik tilikom
‘resolute. And soon all the Catholic people’

(PUB) kopa Italia ilihi chako komtaks pus haha man
‘in the country of Italy became aware that he was a holy man’
(MS) kopa S [?] Italia ilihi pi kopa saia ilihi chako komtaks pus haha man
‘in the country of S [?] Italy and abroad became aware that he was a holy man,’

(PUB) iaka.
(MS) iaka ukuk Nasariyus.
‘this Nazarius.’

 

(PUB)     Kansih sno iaka mitlait kopa Rom, pi ST
‘For several years he lived at Rome, then God’
(MS)     Kansi[h] sno Nasariyus mitlait kopa Rom pi ST
‘For several years Nazarius lived at Rome then God’

(PUB) wawa kopa iaka kopa iaka tomtom pus iaka klatwa
(MS) wawa kopa iaka kopa iaka tomtom pus iaka klatwa
(both) ‘told him in his soul that he should go’

(PUB) kopa hloima ilihi lolo ST wawa kopa klahawiam
‘to other countries carrying God(‘s) word to the poor’
(MS) kopa hloima ilihi mamuk lolo ST wawa kopa klahawiam
‘to other countries making carrying God(‘s) word to the poor’

(PUB) tilikom. Kakwa iaka kuli kanawi kah kopa Italia
(MS) tilikom kakwa iaka kuli kanawi kah kopa Itali [sic]
(both) ‘people. So he traveled everywhere in Italy’ 

(PUB) ilihi, iaka lolo ST iaka wawa kopa tilikom,
‘he brought God(‘s) word to the people,’
(MS) pi iaka lolo ST iaka wawa kopa tilikom,
‘and he brought God(‘s) word to the people,’

(PUB) iaka tolo ayu tilikom kopa styuil. Pus iaka
(MS) iaka tolo ayu tilikom kopa styuil. Pus iaka
(both) ‘he won many people for religion. When he’

(PUB) mash Rom tawn ilip, iaka lolo ayu chikmin: wik
‘left the city of Rome at first he was carrying a lot of money: it wasn’t’
(MS) mash Rom iaka lolo ayu chikmin kopa iaka. Wik
‘left Rome he was carrying a lot of money with him. It wasn’t’

(PUB) lili iaka mamuk kopit ukuk chikmin kopa klahawiam
(MS) lili iaka mamuk kopit ukuk chikmin kopa klahawiam
(both) ‘long until he used up that money on poor’

(PUB) tilikom. Iaka chako klahawiam pus mamuk
(MS) tilikom. Iaka chako klahawiam pus mamuk
(both) ‘people. He became poor to’

(PUB) klahawiam hloima tilikom: chako klahawiam iaka
‘have mercy on other people: his’
(MS) klahawiam hloima tilikom. Iaka iskom Chako klahawiam iaka
‘have mercy on other people. He took His’

(PUB) makmak, chako klahawiam iaka iktas.
(MS) makmak chako klahawiam iaka iktas.
(both) ‘food became poor, his clothes became poor.’

 

(PUB)     Kimta iaka k’o kopa Milan tawn, ilip aias tawn
(MS)     Kimta iaka k’o kopa Milan tawn, ilip aias tawn
(both)     Later he arrived at the town of Milan, the biggest town’

(PUB) kopa Italia ankati, kimta kopa Rom. Iawa iaka
‘in Italy long ago, after Rome. There he’
(MS) kopa Itali kimta kopa Rom. Iawa iaka
‘in Italy long ago after Rome. There he’ 

(PUB) ayu siisim kopa tilikom, pi solshirs chako
‘was praying for people, and soldiers came’
(MS) ayu siisim kopa tilikom. Pi Iawa solshirs
‘was praying for people. And Then soldiers’ 

(PUB) iskom iaka, mamuk k’aw iaka, pi lolo iaka kopa
‘to take him, tied him up, and took him to’
(MS) iskom iaka mamuk k’aw iaka pi lolo iaka kopa
‘took him(,) tied him up and took him to’

(PUB) tawn taii iaka nim Anolinyus. Anolinyus wawa kopa iaka:
‘the local leader named Anolinus. Anolinus asked him:’
(MS) tawn taii Anolinyus. Anolinyus wawa kopa iaka,
‘the local leader Anolinus. Anolinus asked him,’

(PUB) Klaksta maika nim, pi kah maika chako? Pi iaka wawa:
‘What is your name, and where do you come from? And he answered:’
(MS) Klaksta maika nim? = Iaka wawa
‘What is your name? He answered’

(PUB) = Naika nim Nasariyus, naika taii tanas man kopa
‘My name is Nazarius, I am a young man from’
(MS) Naika nim Nasariyus, pi naika taii tanas man kopa
‘My name is Nazarius, and I am a young man from’

(PUB) Rom. = Maika taii tanas man kopa Rom?
(MS) Rom. = Maika taii tanas man kopa Rom,
(both) ‘Rome. You’re a young noble from Rome?’

(PUB) wawa Anolinyus; pi ikta mamuk maika lolo kaltash
(MS) wawa Anolinyus pi ikta mamuk maika lolo kaltash
(both) ‘said Anolinus; so why are you wearing a poor’

(PUB) kot pi kaltash iktas? Pi klaska ayu ihi kopa
‘coat and poor clothes? And they kept laughing at’
(MS) iktas kot pi iktas? Klaska ayu ihi
clothes coat and clothes? They kept laughing (at)’

(PUB) iaka. Kimta, Anolinyus wawa: = Ikta mamuk
‘him. Then, Anolinus asked: Why’
(MS) iaka. [Manuscript has a paragraph break.] Kimta Anolinyus wawa, Pi = Pi ikta mamuk
‘him. Then Anolinus asked, And why’

(PUB) maika patlach hloima siisim kopa tilikom? Ikta
(MS) maika patlach hlooima [sic] siisim kopa tilikom ikta
(both) ‘are you giving strange stories to people? What’

(PUB) mamuk maika mamuk kaltash nsaika goc?
(MS) mamuk maika mamuk kaltash nsaika goc.
(both) ‘makes you insult our gods?’

(PUB) = Kopit iht ST, wawa Nasariyus; ShK
(MS) Kopit iht ST wawa Nasariyus; pi ShK,
(both) ‘(There is) only God, said Nazarius; Jesus’

(PUB) ST iaka tanas iaka mash naika pus naika lolo
‘the child of God sent me so that I could bring’
(MS) iaka ST tanas iaka wawa naika pus naika chako iakwa lolo
‘who is God’s child told me that I should come here bringing’

(PUB) ST iaka wawa kopa tilikom, pi mamuk komtaks kopa
(MS) ST iaka wawa kopa tilikom, pi mamuk komtaks kopa
(both) God’s word to people, and teach’

(PUB) msaika ukuk goc msaika mamuk haha, ilo
(MS) msaika ukuk goc msaika mamuk haha, ilo
(both) ‘you folks that these gods you worship aren’t’

(PUB) goc klaska, liiam klaska.
(MS) goc klaska, liiam klaska.
(both) ‘gods, they’re devils.’

 

(PUB)     Anolinyus wawa: = “Pi klaksta ukuk ShK?
(MS)     Anolinyus wawa; Pi klaksta ukuk ShK.
(both)     ‘Anolinus said: “And who is this Jesus? 

(PUB) Ilo kansih naika kolan iaka nim. Iawa Nasariyus
(MS) Ilo kansi[h] naika kolan ukuk nim. Iawa Nasir [sic]
(both) ‘I’ve never heard his name. Then Nazarius’

(PUB) siisim kopa iaka kata ShK pus iaka mitlait
‘recounted to him what Jesus was like when he lived’
(MS) mamuk komtaks kopa iaka pus kata ShK pus iaka mitlait
‘informed him that what Jesus was like when he lived’

(PUB) kopa ukuk ilihi, pi kata iaka mimlus kopa lakrwa.
(MS) kopa ukuk ilihi pi kata iaka mimlus kopa lakrwa.
(both) ‘on this earth and how he died on a cross.’

(PUB) Iawa klaska ayu ihi iaka, kopa ukuk iaka mamuk
(MS) Iawa klaskaka [sic] ayu ihi iaka, kopa ukuk iaka mamuk
(both) ‘Then they kept laughing (at) him, because he’

(PUB) nawitka iht Shyu mimlus kopa lakrwa.
(MS) nawitka iht Shyu mimlus kopa lakrwa. [Manuscript goes on without paragraph break.]
(both) ‘believed in a Jew who died on a cross.’

 

(PUB)     Klaska mamuk kakshit iaka siahus kopa hwip
‘They beat his face with a whip’
(MS)     Klaska mamuk [h]wip iaka kopa iaka siahus
‘They whipped him on the face’

(PUB) pi chako patl pilpil iaka siahus. Klaska wiht… [the published page ends in mid-sentence]
‘until his face became completely bloody. They also…’
(MS) pi chako ayu pilpil kuli klahani kopa iaka siahus. Klaska wiht [here, lines are added mid-line in the manuscript, matching the page cutoff in the published version]
‘until a lot of blood came running from his face. They also…’

One big general observation that you might not notice at first glance: the anonymous manuscript writer uses essentially the same spellings as Le Jeune does in the published text. That’s quite a clue to the chronology involved: since we’ve made a pretty firm guess that these are two different writers, Anonymous must have learned Chinook Writing by reading Le Jeune’s stuff — most likely in issues of Kamloops Wawa, since there are far more pages of that material than there are of Le Jeune’s sporadic instructional booklets. In any case the latter mostly pre-date the effectively standardized spellings used in Kamloops Wawa and also seen in the Anon manuscript. A fun example of what I’m pointing out happens toward the top of today’s selection, when Anonymous innovates based on Le Jeune’s typical Chinook Writing abbreviation ST for ‘God’ (Sahali Taii), by writing just plain for the word sahali in the common expression sahali tomtom ‘arrogant, conceited’! All of which is to say that the idea of Anonymous being Father Thomas OMI, discussed in our previous installment, holds up well; Thomas arrived in the region circa 1894, by which time Kamloops Wawa was already up and running on a solid regular basis, with a popular and vigorous Aboriginal community literacy supporting it.

Similarly, Anonymous uses typically Le Jeune / Kamloops Wawa choices of words: kaltash goc for ‘pagan gods’ is a nice illustration of this.

And the grammar is typically Kamloops-dialect stuff, as in the use of ayu varying between an intensifier ‘very’ and a verbal progressive-aspect marker analogous to English -ing. 

All in all, the evidence is piling up that Anonymous is not Le Jeune, but instead is someone who learned Jargon and Chinook Writing from him.

Simultaneously, we can tell that Le Jeune was copying from the manuscript to publish it in the newspaper, with occurrences like this around the middle of today’s passage:

(PUB) …pi ShK iaka [sic]…
(MS) …pi ShK mamuk [h]ilp iaka…

If the PUBlished version were taken literally, we’d understand it to say ‘and he [Nazarius] was Jesus’! The ManuScript version’s meaning is the intended one: ‘and Jesus helped him’. The only sensible view of the above discrepancy is that Le Jeune momentarily lost his place in the manuscript during the demanding process of copying from it while editing it for style.

One last, and powerful, clue that the manuscript was written first, then copied by Le Jeune, is at the end of today’s selection, where an existing line of the manuscript is abruptly divided in mid-sentence by the obvious addition of a reference line — a line that precisely matches Le Jeune’s page break in the published version.

Let’s aim to finish this forensic linguistics exercise up tomorrow.

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