So many Métis words in interior PNW languages (Part 3: Interior northern Dene, beyond the Chinuk Wawa zone)

READER CHALLENGE: read on to see if you have ideas about some of the French source words!

Also — Did I mention, this mini-series represents an enormous amount of original research done by me?
I’m showing you information that nobody has collected & analyzed before. 

A generalization that unites all of the following lists of loaned Métis French words is that they came in earlier than the introduction of widespread northern Dene literacy or of modern technology such as electricity and the internal combustion engine. None of these words refers to, or has altered its meaning to, anything invented after 1800 AD.

Those later phenomena are universally expressed by native Dene neologisms (and to a small extent by English words).

So we can date the presence of Métis as a new and influential force in northern Dene societies to the mid-1800s and earlier (back to the founding years of fur-trade posts in the area), quite an interesting point because it puts Métis on the scene at about the same time they were exerting a huge influence on the formation of Chinuk Wawa farther south and west.

Thus, the Métis French component of CW, being of the same vintage as what we’re about to look at, should be directly comparable with it.

For example, recurring throughout the following lists is a faithful reflection of the distinctive MFr intonation pattern that stresses the definite article as well as (alternating syllables of) the following noun — which shows up in northern Dene as tone-marked syllables.

Another implication of this comparability is that the assortment of MFr words that got loaned into northern Dene should probably resemble what we find in CW, and the meanings of the words should be similar even if they have changed over the years since. To a notable degree, this prediction also is confirmed.

1200px-Na-Dene_languages.svg

(Image credit: Wikipedia)

I’ve created two separate articles, one about the interior northern Dene languages on the periphery of the Chinuk Wawa usage zone, and one on those that I don’t know to have had any historical contact with CW. (I haven’t looked into Inuktitut and other Inuit languages, so any Métis influence there remains to be examined by someone with specialized skills.)

The farther you get away from the Pacific coast and the concentrated presence of Settlers who came via that route, the less Chinook Jargon and Russian* influence you find in Dene languages — and more and more Métis French input.

Various notes…

The presence of French definite articles on certain words, especially those involved in measuring such as ‘thousand’ and ‘mile’, reminds me less of Métis French and more of Michif, where you often hear expressions like set lee shayz ‘seven chairs’.

I’m not tracking Russian loanwords, which appear in those Dene languages that are primarily spoken in Alaska, e.g. Upper Tanana. They tell a story separate from that of the Métis people. And they’ve been studied by many scholars already.

A disclaimer in advance: no dictionary is complete, and there may exist many more loanwords in some of the following languages than are shown in the sources I consulted.

Also note, unless I specify otherwise, I’ll mostly refer to Métis French as found in the Cree-French Michif language presented at the truly awesome dictionary.michif.orgMarsee to Darrin Brager for making me aware of that superb reference/learning website! (Update — that site may be back to “under construction” status at the moment.) 

Wherever I only note a source language (but not the source word), I’ve already cited a source word in a previous entry.

Words for ‘gloves’, ‘ring’, etc. that start with la are using a native Dene noun, not a French definite article.

Tsaaʔ Dane / ᑕᓀᖚ ᖚᗀᐥ (Beaver), NE BC & NW Alberta:
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

The First Voices Tsaaʔ Dane (Beaver) website features a good deal of Christian vocabulary, so we might expect to find a number of loaned words there. But those words appear to have been formed out of native parts. Here are the only two obviously borrowed words, both from Métis French:

  • gogosh ‘pig’ (Métis French aen kouhkoush ‘a hog’)
  • lajii ‘tea’ (in lajii t’ǫchii ‘peppermint tea’) (MFr le tea)

Kwadacha Tsek’ene (north central BC):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

  • bòòsa ‘cat’ (MFr?)
  • gògosh ‘pig’ (MFr)
  • k’wusul ‘rosary, crucifix’ (note the broad semantic range; is this a nativization of e.g. MFr krway ‘cross’? Cf. the unexpected phonology in Witsuwit’en ‘straight pin’ and Tse’Khene ‘baking powder’ above)
  • lììyap ‘devil’ (MFr li jhyaab in Norman Fleury’s Michif dictionary)
  • lùbùdak ‘potato’ (MFr)
  • lùdii ‘tea’ (MFr)
  • lùgàfii ‘coffee’ (MFr, not Chinuk Wawa due to the presence of the French definite article)
  • mùsdoos ‘cow’ (Red River Métis)
  • shòògah ‘sugar’ (English / MFr?)
  • tii (in tii màsgèt ‘Hudson Bay tea, Labrador tea, “muskeg tea” ‘) (MFr is most likely, because ‘muskeg tea’ appears to have been a Red River Métis expression)

Vuntut Gwich’in (Yukon Territory/eastern Alaska):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

  • bèebii ‘baby’ (MFr beebee and/or English)
  • lesel ‘salt’ (MFr)
  • lidlii ‘key’ (MFr en klee ‘a key’)
  • lagar ‘playing cards’ (MFr en kart ‘a card’)
  • lagùusrùu ‘pig’ (MFr due to the presence of French definite article)
  • lazraa ‘money’ (also in lazraa zheh ‘bank’ which is literally ‘money house’ modeled on CW) (MFr larzhawn)
  • soongaii ‘sugar’ (English / MFr?)
  • tlèefàa ‘perfume’ (from a MFr *(de) l’eau fin* ‘(some) fine water’?? That would be another Métis expression that we only know from traces in PNW languages, as with CW lakamín ‘stew (etc.)’ from frontier-era MFr la gamine ‘coarse-ground flour’. Partial confirmation may lie in the known use of the word l’eau ‘water’ in the Métis-influenced Slavey Jargon of the same geographical and cultural area, per Craig Mishler’s 2008 JPCL article [thanks to Keren Rice for a copy of that])
  • lageevirh ‘pepper’ (MFr le poivre)

Hän (Tr’ondëk [“Klondike”] Hwëch’in, Yukon Territory):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone
[‘Friday’ appears to be ‘fish day’ 😀, sort of funny in a Native culture influenced by Catholicism]

  • lëgòshǫ̀ ‘pig’ (MFr)
  • lëjit ‘tea’ (also in lëjit chin ‘teapot’) (MFr)
  • lëzra ‘money’ (MFr)
  • lë̀sěl ‘salt’ (MFr)
  • sǫgay ‘sugar’ (English / MFr)
  • I’m including trʼehcho tǫnʼ ‘cheechako boat’ here, only to show you that the CW-origin “cheechako” (newcomer) is truly omnipresent in Alaska English)

Hän (Gwich’in), from the Alaska Native Languages Center dictionary:

  • lë̀shell ‘shawl’
  • lë̀jii ‘tea’
  • lö̀gùshuu ‘pig’
  • lö̀govä̀r ‘pepper’ (le poivre)
  • lë̀seww ‘salt’
  • lë̀dlii ‘key’
  • lë̀zraa ‘money’
  • lö̀gäldä̀h ‘cards’
  • bìzhorr ? ‘a card game’ (readers, any ideas?)
  • dähsroo ‘rag’
  • lö̀bä̀zrell / lö̀bä̀zrii ‘barrel’
  • slä̀prii ‘trash’ (saloperie)

Gwich’in (from Alaska Native Language Center’s Junior Dictionary):
This dictionary points out various loan words, and the fact that the Métis French ones are typically perceived as Native by speakers.
It also notes the phonemes /m/ and /f/ occur mainly in borrowings.

  • lidii ‘tea’
  • mahsį ‘thank you’
  • lavasdaa ‘feast’ (le festin)
  • fąą ‘fancy’ (fin)
  • lisil ‘salt’
  • lagohshroo ‘pig’
  • laraa ‘money; coin’
  • labaarii ‘barrel’
  • lagahfii ‘coffee’
  • dohshroo ‘towel’
  • lagar ‘card, playing card; card game’
  • lagwadǫǫ ‘cloth’ (le coton; a separate Native-derived word is used for ‘cotton (also ‘popcorn’)’)
  • lavashrduu ‘hammer’ (le marteau)
  • lidlįį ‘key’
  • lageevir ‘pepper’

Western Gwich’in (Alaska):

  • dohshroo ‘towel’
  • lagwadǫǫ ‘cloth’
  • tɬeefaa / ɬeefąą ‘perfume’
  • lishel / lishyal ‘shawl’
  • lidii ‘tea’
  • lisil ‘salt’
  • lagahfii ‘coffee’
  • lageevir ‘pepper’
  • lagohshroo ‘pig’
  • lavasdaa ‘feast, old-time feast; potlatch’
  • lagar ‘card, playing card, card game’
  • laraa ‘coin; money’
  • lidlįį ‘key’
  • lavashrduu ‘hammer’

T’siigehtchic Gwich’in (Fort McPherson, NWT):
This dictionary is exceptional in its adaptations to modern Canadian life, with terms for ‘alternative measures’, ‘Alzheimers’, ‘alibi’, and much more, thoroughly checked by elders.
It also explains the literal meaning of each word, even in multi-word phrases, so you can easily check whether an expression is a copy of ‘under-pants’, see that ‘sub-chief’ is the Indigenous metaphor ‘man sitting beside the boss’, etc.

  • limes ‘mass’ (Catholic ritual)
  • bèebii ‘baby’
  • ligǫhshųų / ligoshuu / lugǫhshųų / lugoshuu ‘pig’
  • lazhąą / lazhaa ‘money’
  • libaazrìi’ ‘barrel’
  • Maarii / Meerii ‘Mary’ (mother of Jesus)
  • ligis ‘box’
  • lavadǫǫ / lavadoo ‘button’ (le boton)
  • ligafii ‘coffee’
  • soogaii / suugąįį ‘sugar’
  • liganar ‘kettle’ (le canard)
  • lidlii ‘key’
  • màamaa ‘mother’
  • lalen ‘wool’ (la laine)
  • ligeevir ‘pepper’
  • labap ‘pope’ (le pape)
  • larabąą / larabaa ‘ribbon’ (le ruban)
  • ligarben ‘rifle’ (la carabine)
  • lisel ‘salt’
  • lashel ‘shawl’
  • lidii ‘tea’
  • màhsì’ ‘thank you’ (also màhsì’ choo ‘thank you very much’) (merci; grand merci)
  • laswee ‘thread (embroidery silk) (la soie)
  • dohsrǫǫ / dohsroo ‘towel’

Tanacross (east-central Alaska):
This is the one northern Dene language that I found to have both Russian borrowings (e.g.
basdlah ‘butter’) and Métis French ones.

  • ldîil ‘tea’
  • meldlíi’ ‘key’
  • lsaaz ‘money’
  • lsel ‘salt’
  • sųgąąy ‘sugar’

ALSO NOTE:

  • ? galdás ? ‘playing cards’ (quite possibly from English)
  • ? goheey ? ‘coffee’ (more likely from Russian)
  • ? ch’ikemen ? ‘frying pan’ (CW? via Ahtna Dene?)

Tsuut’ina (Sarcee, central Alberta):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

Sadly, I had a hard time finding any borrowed words in the online dictionary, which is still in early testing stages.

Dene Sųłiné / Dene yatié (“Chipewyan”, NE Alberta, NWT):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

  • guhgús ‘pig’ (MFr) (cocoche)
  • lidí ‘tea’ (MFr)
  • líkafí ‘coffee’ (MFr, not CW, due to the presence of the French definite article)
  • mąsi ‘thank you’ (also in mąsi chok ‘thank you’) (MFr; mąsi chok ‘big thanks’ is a widespread northern Dene expression that may reflect a MFr *grand merci* which however I’ve only seen documented for sure in other North American French varieties)
  • mįnus ‘cat’ (also in mínuschok ‘cougar’ [lit. ‘big cat’, a formation frequent among northern Dene languages]) (MFr aen minoosh ‘a cat’)
  • súgah ‘sugar’ (English / CW / MFr?)

Dëne Dédliné Yatié (Chipewyan, Northwest Territories/Alberta):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone, instead more Plains influence e.g. ‘Americans’ are ‘long knives’
This is an excellent dictionary, which I think was modeled on the 1992 Dogrib one that I used (below). I probably missed some loan words in it. I’m ignoring recent English loans e.g. ‘taxi; cheque; cheese, beer’.
The multiple tone marks on many MFr loans parallel what I’ve observed of MFr stress patterning!
I’d love to find loan words that have nasalized vowels in French, to see if (like those in Chinuk Wawa etc.) they’d get de-nasalized, even though Chipewyan natively has loads of nasalized vowels. Alas, none such were found.

  • lás ‘ace of cards; aces (card game)’ (MFr aen naws ‘an ace’)
  • lamés ‘Catholic mass’ in a term for ‘altar’ (MFr la mes)
  • lígardús ‘bullet’ (MFr enn kaartoosh ‘a bullet’ in Norman Fleury’s Michif dictionary)
  • libá ‘socks’ (MFr lee baw)
  • batél ? ‘apron’ (readers, any ideas?)
  • bebí ‘baby’ (MFr / English)
  • gugúsh ‘pig’ (MFr)
  • lishéf ‘chief’ (MFr li shef)
  • líbarí ‘barrel’ (MFr aen baarii ‘a barrel’ in Norman Fleury’s Michif dictionary)
  • marí ‘(the Virgin) Mary’ (MFr Maree)
  • lagés ‘box, crate’ (presumably a MFr *la caisse* but that’s not in any of the sources I know; compare the North Americanism la ca(i)ssette which gave us Chinuk Wawa’s lakʰasét ‘box, trunk’)
  • súga ‘sugar’ (English / MFr)
  • líbarlá ‘canvas’ (presumably a MFr *le burlap*, which I find in none of my North American French references)
  • lígafí ‘coffee’ (MFr)
  • busí ‘cat’ (MFr / English)
  • lígarú ‘diamonds’ (the mineral; also in playing cards?) (MFr li kaaroo in Norman Fleury’s Michif dictionary is specifically “as in cards”)
  • lasué ‘silk; embroidery silk’ (MFr la sway)
  • labuél ‘frying pan (cast iron)’ (there’s a natively derived word for other frying pans) (MFr la pwel)
  • Sezús ‘Jesus’ (MFr)
  • ladlí ‘key’ (MFr)
  • lidí ‘tea’ (MFr)
  • libík ‘spades (in cards)’ (MFr li pik “in cards” in Norman Fleury’s dictionary)
  • lalén ‘wool’ (MFr la lenn)
  • mársi ‘thank you’ (also in mársicho ‘thank you very much’ = ‘big thanks’) (MFr)
  • limíl ‘thousand’ (MFr mil, a word that you don’t normally find with a definite article in French varieties!)
  • levlúr ‘velvet’ (MFr li vloor)
  • This dictionary also explicitly recognizes the Beghárek’ąze, the Chipewyan-speaking Métis people. One of the entries says I am proud to be Metis’: Beghárek’ąze hesɬį ghą hásdi. 

Tɬįchǫ (Dogrib, Northwest Territories):
outside of the Chinuk Wawa zone

Another northern Dene language is Tɬįchǫ (“Dogrib” Dene/Athabaskan, North West Territories of Canada), and like so many of its sisters, it makes use of numerous Métis French loan words.

I’ve had a thorough look in “Tɬįchǫ Yatiì Enįhtɬ’è: A Dogrib Dictionary” (1996), and am once again impressed what a strong connection Métis people, starting with the historical fur trade, have had with First Nations of the North and far West.

Here is my list of Tɬįchǫ words that were probably sourced from the speech of Métis living in these folks’ traditional territories. A special challenge in spotting some of these loans is that Tɬįchǫ has a tendency to “clip” consonants off the ends!

As usual, I’ll use a single source (here the Mother Tongues online dictionary of Michif) as my authority for Métis French forms, unless I specify otherwise.

  • babà ‘dad’, babà[-]cho/babà[-]tso ‘grandfather’ (literally ‘big-father’)
    (MFr pawpaw ‘father’; compare standard French grand-père (literally ‘big-father’) for ‘grandfather’, although that form doesn’t appear in any of the Michif dictionaries — however, the St Laurent “Michif French” dictionary tells us pepayr, based on the word for ‘father’)
  • bebì ‘baby, little child, youngest child’
    (MFr beebee/baybee)
  • bįį̀ ‘beans’
    (MFr lii biins in Normal Fleury’s dictionary of Michif online / English-language influence is possible too)
  • Marì/Maą̀ ‘Mary’ (mother of Jesus)
    (MFr Maree)
  • dǫhsǫ̀ǫ ‘dish towel, napkin’
    (MFr torshoon ‘towel’)
  • ? jiegè ? ‘joker in cards’
    (MFr aen joker Fleury)
  • ladà ‘table, desk’
    (MFr la tab ‘the table’ in Laverdure & Allard’s 1983 Michif dictionary)
  • ladlì ‘key’
    (MFr la klee Laverdure & Allard)
  • ladzè/lagè/lajè ‘box, case lot, wooden box, trunk’
    (MFr *la caisse* not found in the Michif dictionaries, but compare the North Americanism la ca(i)ssette which gave us Chinuk Wawa’s lakʰasét ‘box, trunk’)
  • lahsìi ‘silk embroidery, embroidery thread’
    (MFr la sway ‘silk’ and/or li fil ‘thread’; ’embroidering floss’ in Laverdure & Allard uses li fil)
  • lamè ‘Mass’ [in Catholicism]
    (MFr la mes)
  • lawą̀ ‘oatmeal, porridge’
    (MFr la wenn ‘oats’)
  • làbiì ‘beer’
    (MFr has la byayr from French in all of the Michif dictionaries; the Tɬįchǫ word has the right tone pattern to be from French, but the final vowel suggests later influence from English)
  • lemì ‘thousand’
    (MFr mil, a word that you don’t normally find with a definite article in French varieties!)
  • lemìiyǫǫ̀/lemìizhǫǫ̀ ‘million’
    (MFr aen milyoon, another word that you don’t normally find with a definite article in French varieties!)
  • libà ‘sock, stockings’
    (MFr lee baw ‘socks’)
  • libò ‘cup’
    (MFr pot is a larger vessel, a ‘pitcher, vase, gravy boat’ in the Michif dictionaries; for ‘cup’ modern Michif uses bol)
  • libǫ̀ ‘ribbon’
    (MFr (li) roubawn)
  • lidì ‘tea’
    (MFr li tea)
  • lidzè/lijè ‘hearts in cards’
    (MFr li choer ‘heart’ / Fleury has lii keur ‘hearts’)
  • ligàà ‘diamonds in cards’
    (MFr li kaaroo Fleury)
  • lihsà/lihshà ‘shawl’
    (MFr shawl)
  • lizà ‘ace in cards’
    (MFr aen naws, Fleury’s l’aas etc.)
  • lìbaà/lìbarì ‘barrel’
    (MFr aen baarii Fleury)
  • lìbalà / ? nǫ̀mbalà ? ‘canvas’
    (MFr *li burlap*??? — no corresponding form found yet in the dictionaries, but this word also shows up in Chipewyan Dene)
  • lìdziwì/lìjiwì ‘galvanized tub, washtub’
    (cf. MFr enn cheuv ‘tub’ — do any of my readers know an etymology?)
  • ? lìgaezǫǫ̀ ? ‘labrador tea, medicine for shortness of breath, northern comandra’
    (is this MFr????)
  • lìgahwhì ‘coffee’
    (MFr li koffii Fleury)
  • lìgalǫ̀ ‘gallon’
    (MFr aen galoon)
  • lìgodǫ̀ ‘cotton, cotton fabric’
    (MFr kwatoon/Fleury’s kotton)
  • lìmęę̀/lìmerì/lìmbeè ‘narrow cloth trim (old type), rickrack’
    (in MFr I find manishaa, not a great match; any readers know a closer etymology?)
  • lìsabòh ‘hat’ (in lìsabòh ts’ah ‘broad-brimmed hat’)
    (MFr lee shapou plural)
  • lìsawà ‘savage’
    (MFr aen savazh ‘an Indian’)
  • lìsimį̀/lìsimą̀/nesimį̀ ‘towel’
    (MFr aen niseumaen — important to note the initial “N” in Dogrib faithfully reflects the distinctly Métis development from an original l’essuie-mains, un essuie-mains)
  • mamà ‘mother, mom’, mamà[-]cho/mamà[-]tso ‘grandmother, great-grandmother’
    (MFr dictionary of St Laurent tells us memayr, based on the word for ‘mother’; Michif dictionaries do not have such a form)
  • masì/mahsì ‘be thankful, thank you, be good, be well; expression for greeting people and saying goodbye; (a situation) is well’, masìcho/masìtso ‘thanks a lot, thank you very much’
  • ? Mǫ̀la ? ‘French people, white people’
    (I think this is a reflection of Plains Cree, thus Red River Métis, “mǫniiyas”)
  • sìga/chìga/tsìga ‘sugar’
    (MFr li seuk and/or later influence from English)
  • sǫǫ̀mba ‘money, dollar, funding, silver’
    (a reflection of Plains Cree, thus Red River Métis, sooniiyaaw)
  • ? xàà ? ‘cards’
    (possibly from MFr kart)
  • Zezì ‘Jesus’, Zezì Kri ‘Jesus Christ’
    (MFr (Li) Zayzeu/Zheezeu)
  • Zidà[-]ot’įį̀/Zhidà[-]ot’įį̀ ‘people of Judea, Jews, Israelites’
    (I’m including this word to point out that it’s not necessarily from spoken MFr; Indigenous languages of the region typically have a few religious words from priests’ formal French, such as this one from Judée ‘Judea’, Juda(s) ‘Judah, Judas’)

South Slavey (Northwest Territories):

  • baby bebí[-]a
  • White (White person) Móla, French Móla[-]sǫɬįę́
  • money sómba 
  • cards xáh
  • key ladlí
  • hem (dress) mechambáa ɬenédlu
  • shawl lihshá
  • silk, nylon lahsúé
  • velvet luhlú (le velour)
  • barrel líbarí
  • box lajéh
  • coffee lígafí
  • cup libó
  • table ladá
  • towel líhsįmá
  • aces lizáh
  • diamonds ligarú
  • tea lidí
  • pig gugúh
  • sugar súga
  • rifle ligáabį
  • canvas líbalá
  • tires líhsharí
    (cf. MFr shawr ‘wagon’…….)
  • ribbon líbą́
  • thank-you máhsi, thank you very much máhsi cho
  • thousand limíl

North Slavey, K’ashógot’įne dialect (NWT):

  • lígohshǫ́ ‘pig’
  • lígahfí ‘coffee’
  • lísaldą́ ‘police, Royal Canadian Mounted Police’ (but ‘soldier’ is expressed with native Dene material)
  • Tadə Mǫ́la ‘Metis’ (‘half White.people’)
  • líshabú ‘cowboy hat’ because nowadays most brimmed hats are that style, but originally brimmed hats were what were introduced by Métis people
  • lígahsǫ́ ‘panties’ (readers, any ideas?)
  • lishálí ‘shawl’
  • libą́ ‘socks’
  • lalę́ní ‘yarn’, laleníhʔǝ ‘sweater’
  • lewéh ‘vest’ (la veste)
  • ? lawǫ́hsere ? ‘long underwear’ (readers, any ideas?)
  • lébudę́(į́) ‘bottle'(la bouteille)
  • lǝjǝ́ ‘box’
  • lébélí ‘broom’ (le balai)
  • lǝhshǝ́ ‘chair’ (la chaise)
  • lígahfí ladawí / lígahfí ladámí ‘coffee table’
  • libó ‘cup’
  • dǫhshǫ ‘dish towel’
  • léfuhshǝ́ ‘fork’
  • lǝbílí ‘frying pan’
  • legóbę́į́ ts’éré ‘Hudson Bay blanket’ (la compagnie = ‘the company’)
  • líbarí ‘keg; tub’
  • lədlú [sic] ‘key’
  • líganáré/ledíh[-]tęne ‘kettle’
  • léguwé ‘lid’ (le couvert)
  • lésuzú ‘scissors’
  • léjuyǝ́ ‘spoon’
  • léht’ǝ́w’á[-]garú ‘square pan (cake pan)’
  • súhga libó ‘sugar bowl’
  • ladámí/ladáwí ‘table’
  • lísimą́ ‘towel’
  • líhfarí ‘flour’, líhfarítáyo ‘baking powder; baking soda’
  • leshégólé ‘chocolate bar’
  • note English loans treated like some of the MFr ones above — jemí ‘jam’, mílí ‘milk’
  • leyálé ‘oatmeal’
  • lídzayǫ́ ‘onion’
  • lerí ‘rice’
  • lehsélí ‘salt’
  • garú ‘rectangle’, súhga[-]garú ‘sugar cubes’
  • ledí ‘tea’
  • lígardú ‘bullets’
  • líbalá ‘canvas’
  • lǝhfílí ‘thread’
  • ? líshoní ? ‘open fire place’ (la cheminée ‘chimney’?)
  • lemílí ‘thousand’
  • lígulú/legulú ‘bells’
  • légodíba ‘cord of wood’ (la corde de bois)
  • libábiyǫ́ ‘flag’ (compare the Métis French origin of the name of Pavilion, BC)
  • gitárí ‘guitar’
  • ligarí ‘cards’
  • lamé ‘mass’
  • lífadą́ ‘feast’
  • Yezú Krį́dé ‘Jesus Christ’
  • libáb ‘Pope’
  • Marí ‘Mary’ (mother of Jesus)
  • lémerí ts’ele/lémerí ‘cloth trimming; ricrac’
  • lérubą́ ‘ribbon’
  • lǝdlú ‘nail’
  • lebes ‘shovel’
  • líhsharí ‘wheelbarrow’
  • líbahdú ‘scow’

North Slavey, Sahtuót’įnę Gokedé dialect (NWT):

  • gugú ‘pig’
  • bəbíbebí ‘baby’
  • libob ‘pope’
  • lísharé ‘truck; car’
  • tani mǫ́la ‘métis’
  • lísabú ‘cowboy hat’
  • dǫshǫ́ ‘dish towel’
  • lígarihsǫ́ ‘panties’
  • lishál ‘shawl’
  • ləwə́ ‘vest’
  • lijə́ ‘box’
  • lígafí ‘coffee’
  • ladá / ledá ‘table’
  • libó ‘cup’
  • lajawə́ ‘curtains’
  • legwilé ‘frying pan’
  • líbaré ‘keg; barrel; tub’
  • lədlú [sic] ‘key’
  • líganaré ‘kettle’
  • líguwə́ ‘lid’
  • lísuzú ‘scissors’
  • líchuyə́ / líshuyə́ ‘spoon’
  • súga ‘sugar’
  • lésimá ‘towel’
  • lífaré ‘flour’
  • note — mílé ‘milk’
  • lisél ‘salt’
  • lidí / lədí ‘tea’
  • ? libú ? ‘mile’ (also in preceding dialect)
  • garé hįlį ‘square’
  • lemíl / ləmílé ‘thousand’
  • lígulú ‘bells’
  • sǫ́ba ‘money’
  • ligá ‘cards’
  • lamé ‘mass’
  • Yezúkrí ‘Jesus Christ’
  • libáb ‘pope’
  • Marí ‘Mary’ (Mother of Jesus)
  • líbalá ‘canvas’
  • lémerí[-]ts’éle ‘cloth trimming, ricrac’
  • límahdú ‘hammer’
  • libə́ ‘shovel’
  • máhsi ‘thank you’

North Slavey, Shúhtaǫt’ine Gokəde dialect

  • gugú ‘pig’
  • sǫ́ba ‘money’
  • lígafí ‘coffee’
  • lísharé / lísharí ‘truck, car’
  • tani mǫ́la ‘métis’
  • dǫshǫ́ ‘dish towel’
  • lishál ‘shawl’
  • bebí ‘baby’
  • lajə́ / lajé ‘box’
  • ladá ‘table’
  • libó ‘cup’
  • lajavə́ ‘curtains’
  • libili ‘frying pan’
  • libaré ‘keg, tub, barrel’
  • ledlú [sic] ‘key’
  • litene ‘kettle’
  • lúsuzú ‘scissors’
  • líshuyə́ ‘spoon’
  • súga ‘sugar’, súgalu ‘sugar cubes’
  • garú ‘rectangle’
  • lúsimá ‘towel’
  • lífaré / lífarí ‘flour’
  • ? lerashe ? ‘baking powder’ (do any of my readers know a French source word?)
  • lisél ‘salt’
  • lidí ‘tea’
  • libú ‘mile’ (an oldtime Canadian/Métis French word, le bout, literally something like ‘a spell’ down the road, ‘a bit’ down the road)
  • lígulú ‘bells’
  • libábiyǫ́n ‘flag’
  • lemíl ‘thousand’
  • ligá ‘cards’
  • lamé ‘mass’
  • Yezúkrí ‘Jesus Christ’
  • libáb ‘pope’
  • Marí ‘Mary’ (mother of Jesus)
  • lúbalá ‘canvas’
  • lémerí[-]ts’éle ‘cloth trimming’
  • lúrubá ‘ribbon’
  • lúsuzú ‘scissors’
  • lifilé ‘thread’
  • límahdú ‘hammer’
  • ĺəbə́ [sic] ‘shovel’
  • mahsi ‘thank you’

Northern Tutchone, Selkirk dialect (central Yukon Territory):
relatively few MFr words; more obvious English influence

  • ledyát ‘tea’
  • lesyá’ ‘salt’
  • lezé’ ‘money’
  • minárs ‘ace’
  • sáwga / syáwa ‘sugar’
  • bébi ‘baby’
  • dan náák hedle ‘glasses’ (CW+Tlingit, prob. via Southern Tutchone, cf. Part 2 of this mini-series)
  • NOTE ALSO…
  • pédo / pándo ‘potatoes’
  • uzhí picture ‘camera’
  • sto ‘stove’
  • hámra ‘hammer’

Northern Tutchone, Na-Cho Yak Dun (Mayo) dialect, central Yukon Territory:
The “Introduction” to this quite small dictionary of the most northerly Northern Tutchone dialect notes that “Tutchone” probably reflects the native word Dechan ‘wood(s); stick’, and that early visitors reported the Indigenous people here were called “Wood Indians” or “Stick Indians”.

  • ts’onshi ‘potatoes’ (from Tlingit, via e.g. Southern Tutchone, which has lots of words from Tl including Chinuk Wawa ones)
  • losyá’ ‘salt’
  • ledyát ‘tea’
  • súga ‘sugar’
  • k’ok ‘book, paper, letter’ (from Tlingit, via e.g. Southern Tutchone)

qʰata mayka təmtəm?
What do you think?